We have isolated and characterized 3 monoclonal antibody (Mab) reagents useful in the serological identification of varieties of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) viruses. These antibodies were specific for the E1 glycoprotein of their homologous viruses. One Mab, 1B5C-3, reacted specifically with all North American (NA) EEE viruses isolated over a 50 year period. This antigenic stability of NA isolates was genetically confirmed by oligonucleotide fingerprinting. Evolutionary stability is a unique feature among alphaviruses. The Mab 1C1J-4 reacted specifically with 1 South American isolate of EEE virus. A third Mab, 1B1C-4, was EEE virus complex reactive. While none of these antibodies had virus neutralizing activity, the identified reactivities could be demonstrated in the more rapid serological tests of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence.