A field study in northeastern Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China, in June of 1985 demonstrated a spotted fever group rickettsiosis. Two strains of spotted fever group rickettsiae were isolated. One strain was obtained from the blood of a patient with an eschar, regional lymphadenopathy, and history of a recent tick bite. The other strain originated from ova of ticks, Dermacentor nuttalli. These represent the second isolate of a spotted fever group rickettsia from a human and the first isolate from tick ova in the People's Republic of China. Antibodies to these rickettsiae were demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence in the sera of 4% of healthy children and 34% of healthy human adults, in 58% of sheep, and in 76% of cattle in the same location. Hemolymph test revealed rickettsiae in 6 of 36 D. nuttalli examined.