Serum samples from 120 individuals living in a malaria-endemic area, 31 patients with Plasmodium falciparum infection, and 58 healthy blood donors were tested for antibodies against P. falciparum and P. vivax sporozoites. Specific antibodies were determined by the circumsporozoite precipitation (CSP) reaction and indirect immunofluorescent (IFA) tests for IgG and IgM antibodies. It was found that a high proportion of adults living in the endemic area had IFA anti-sporozoite antibodies, usually IgG. Children and healthy donors were either negative or had low antibody titers. A positive correlation was found between IgG antibody titers against P. falciparum sporozoites and those against P. vivax sporozoites. CSP reactivity was demonstrated in 5 of 31 sera from patients with falciparum malaria, and was always associated with a high level of IFA antibodies. The anti-sporozoite antibodies were found to be stage- and species-specific.