The studies described in this report were designed to determine the responses of established infections with eight strains of Plasmodium falciparum and two strains of P. vivax in owl monkeys to treatment with chloroquine, quinine, and pyrimethamine. Responses with these different strains ranged from cure via application of well-tolerated doses of two of the above drugs and refractoriness to treatment with maximally tolerated doses of the third, to complete resistance to maximally tolerated doses of all three compounds. The results of treatment exhibited in infected owl monkeys correlated well in two respects with those reported in humans infected with the same plasmodial species. First, calculated on a milligram per M2 basis, the doses of chloroquine, quinine, or pyrimethamine required for a CD90 response in owl monkeys infected with strains susceptible to these drugs were remarkably similar to the doses required and/or employed for cure of infections with so-called drug-susceptible strains in human patients. Secondly, with few exceptions, the responses to the above drugs in owl monkeys infected with the ten specially selected strains were essentially identical with those exhibited by human volunteers or patients infected with the same strains. Together, these findings and correlations provide strong support for use of owl monkeys infected with appropriate strains of P. falciparum and P. vivax in the search for more broadly effective antimalarial drugs.