Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes transmitted blood-induced Plasmodium vivax infection from three night monkeys, Aotus trivirgatus, to three other night monkeys and to a Panamanian marmoset, Saguinus geoffroyi. Mosquito-transmissions of the malaria also were successful from one black spider monkey, Ateles fusciceps, to two other black spider monkeys. Prepatent periods ranged from 14 to 29 days and patent periods from 19 to 37 days. Plasmodium vivax in S. geoffroyi developed less than 10 parasites per cmm in contrast to maxima of 42,850 and 8,390 per cmm in A. trivirgatus and A. fusciceps on primary infection. Relapse occurred in one A. trivirgatus and in one A. fusciceps after subpatent intervals of 27 and 4 days. The relapse infections were patent for 29 and 24 days and reached maxima of 15,420 and 15,470 parasites per cmm. Mosquitoes were infected from feeding upon each A. trivirgatus and one A. fusciceps. This report of mosquito-transmissions of P. vivax infection to Panamanian primates appears to be the first of sporozoite-induced human malaria in monkeys.
Present address: Veterans Administration, Edward Hines Jr. Hospital, RILAMSAT, Bldg. 189a, Hines, Illinois 60141.