We are grateful to Global Enteric Multicenter Study staff, parents, and children for their contributions. This research was funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and by the core donors who provide unrestricted support to the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) for its operations and research. Current donors providing unrestricted support include the governments of Bangladesh, Canada, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. We thank our core donors for their support and commitment to icddr,b’s research efforts.
Liu J et al., 2016. Use of quantitative molecular diagnostic methods to identify causes of diarrhoea in children: a reanalysis of the GEMS case-control study. Lancet 388: 1291–1301.
Kotloff KL et al., 2013. Burden and aetiology of diarrhoeal disease in infants and young children in developing countries (the Global Enteric Multicenter Study, GEMS): a prospective, case-control study. Lancet 382: 209–222.
Altekruse SF , Stern NJ , Fields PI , Swerdlow DL , 1999. Campylobacter jejuni – an emerging foodborne pathogen. Emerg Infect Dis 5: 28.
Black RE , Levine MM , Clements ML , Hughes TP , Blaser MJ , 1988. Experimental Campylobacter jejuni infection in humans. J Infect Dis 157: 472–479.
Janssen R , Krogfelt KA , Cawthraw SA , van Pelt W , Wagenaar JA , Owen RJ , 2008. Host-pathogen interactions in Campylobacter infections: the host perspective. Clin Microbiol Rev 21: 505–518.
Smith JL , 2002. Campylobacter jejuni infection during pregnancy: long-term consequences of associated bacteremia, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and reactive arthritis. J Food Prot 65: 696–708.
Coker AO , Isokpehi RD , Thomas BN , Amisu KO , Obi CL , 2002. Human campylobacteriosis in developing countries. Emerg Infect Dis 8: 237–244.
Huilan S et al., 1991. Etiology of acute diarrhoea among children in developing countries: a multicentre study in five countries. Bull World Health Organ 69: 549–555.
Hasan KZ et al., 2006. Aetiology of diarrhoea in a birth cohort of children aged 0–2 year(s) in rural Mirzapur, Bangladesh. J Health Popul Nutr 24: 25–35.
Lee G , Pan W , Peñataro Yori P , Paredes Olortegui M , Tilley D , Gregory M , Oberhelman R , Burga R , Chavez CB , Kosek M , 2013. Symptomatic and asymptomatic Campylobacter infections associated with reduced growth in Peruvian children. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2036.
Taylor P , D’Cruz P , Noronha E , Scholarios D , 2013. The experience of work in India’s domestic call centre industry. Int J Hum Resour Manage 24: 436–452.
Figueroa G , Galeno H , Troncoso M , Toledo S , Soto V , 1989. Prospective study of Campylobacter jejuni infection in Chilean infants evaluated by culture and serology. J Clin Microbiol 27: 1040–1044.
Haque MA et al., 2019. Determinants of Campylobacter infection and association with growth and enteric inflammation in children under 2 years of age in low-resource settings. Sci Rep 9: 17124.
Chen ML , Ge Z , Fox JG , Schauer DB , 2006. Disruption of tight junctions and induction of proinflammatory cytokine responses in colonic epithelial cells by Campylobacter jejuni. Infect Immun 74: 6581–6589.
Stahl M , Butcher J , Stintzi A , 2012. Nutrient acquisition and metabolism by Campylobacter jejuni. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2: 5.
Fernandez H , Vera F , Villanueva MP , Garcia A , 2008. Occurrence of Campylobacter species in healthy well-nourished and malnourished children. Braz J Microbiol 39: 56–58.
Kotloff KL et al., 2012. The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) of diarrheal disease in infants and young children in developing countries: epidemiologic and clinical methods of the case/control study. Clin Infect Dis 55 (Suppl 4): S232–S245.
Das R , Haque MA , Chisti MJ , Faruque ASG , Ahmed T , 2021. Association between non-typhoidal Salmonella infection and growth in children under 5 years of age: analyzing data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study. Nutrients 13: 392.
Lindsay B et al., 2015. Microbiota that affect risk for shigellosis in children in low-income countries. Emerg Infect Dis 21: 242.
Howard G , Ahmed MF , Shamsuddin AJ , Mahmud SG , Deere D , 2006. Risk assessment of arsenic mitigation options in Bangladesh. J Health Popul Nutr 24: 346.
Das R , Haque MA , Chisti MJ , Faruque ASG , Ahmed T , 2021. Associated factors, post infection child growth, and household cost of invasive enteritis among under 5 children in Bangladesh. Sci Rep 11: 12738.
Panchalingam S et al., 2012. Diagnostic microbiologic methods in the GEMS-1 case/control study. Clin Infect Dis 55 (Suppl 4): S294–S302.
Cogill B , 2001. Anthropometric indicators measurement guide.
El Mouzan MI , Foster PJ , Al Herbish AS , Al Salloum AA , Al Omar AA , Qurachi MM , 2010. Prevalence of malnutrition in Saudi children: a community-based study. Ann Saudi Med 30: 381–385.
World Health Organization , 2006. WHO Child Growth Standards: Length/Height-for-Age, Weight-for-Age, Weight-for-Length, Weight-for-Height and Body Mass Index-for-Age: Methods and Development. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
Levine MM , Robins-Browne RM , 2012. Factors that explain excretion of enteric pathogens by persons without diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis 55 (Suppl 4): S303–S311.
Wysok B , Wojtacka J , Kivistö R , 2020. Pathogenicity of Campylobacter strains of poultry and human origin from Poland. Int J Food Microbiol 334: 108830.
Tribble DR et al., 2010. Assessment of the duration of protection in Campylobacter jejuni experimental infection in humans. Infect Immun 78: 1750–1759.
Robins-Browne RM , Mackenjee MK , Bodasing MN , Coovadia HM , 1983. Treatment of Campylobacter-associated enteritis with erythromycin. Am J Dis Child 137: 282–285.
Salazar-Lindo E , Sack RB , Chea-Woo E , Kay BA , Piscoya ZA , Leon-Barua R , Yi A , 1986. Early treatment with erythromycin of Campylobacter jejuni-associated dysentery in children. J Pediatr 109: 355–360.
Lima AA et al., 2000. Persistent diarrhea signals a critical period of increased diarrhea burdens and nutritional shortfalls: a prospective cohort study among children in northeastern Brazil. J Infect Dis 181: 1643–1651.
Calva JJ , Ruiz-Palacios GM , Lopez-Vidal AB , Ramos A , Bojalil R , 1988. Cohort study of intestinal infection with Campylobacter in Mexican children. Lancet 1: 503–506.
Sepulveda J , Willett W , Munoz A , 1988. Malnutrition and diarrhea. A longitudinal study among urban Mexican children. Am J Epidemiol 127: 365–376.
da Silva Quetz J , Lima IF , Havt A , de Carvalho EB , Lima NL , Soares AM , Mota RM , Guerrant RL , Lima AA , 2010. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in children from communities in northeastern Brazil: molecular detection and relation to nutritional status. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 67: 220–227.
- Search Google Scholar
- Export Citation
da Silva Quetz J Lima IF Havt A de Carvalho EB Lima NL Soares AM Mota RM Guerrant RL Lima AA 2010. Campylobacter jejuniand Campylobacter coliin children from communities in northeastern Brazil: molecular detection and relation to nutritional status 67: 220– 227.
Black RE , Brown KH , Becker S , 1984. Malnutrition is a determining factor in diarrheal duration, but not incidence, among young children in a longitudinal study in rural Bangladesh. Am J Clin Nutr 39: 87–94.
Spiller RC , Jenkins D , Thornley JP , Hebden JM , Wright T , Skinner M , Neal KR , 2000. Increased rectal mucosal enteroendocrine cells, T lymphocytes, and increased gut permeability following acute Campylobacter enteritis and in post-dysenteric irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 47: 804–811.
- Search Google Scholar
- Export Citation
Spiller RC Jenkins D Thornley JP Hebden JM Wright T Skinner M Neal KR 2000. Increased rectal mucosal enteroendocrine cells, T lymphocytes, and increased gut permeability following acute. Gut Campylobacterenteritis and in post-dysenteric irritable bowel syndrome 47: 804– 811.
Ahmed T , Haque R , Shamsir Ahmed AM , Petri WA Jr. , Cravioto A , 2009. Use of metagenomics to understand the genetic basis of malnutrition. Nutr Rev 67 (Suppl 2): S201–S206.
Gupta SS , Mohammed MH , Ghosh TS , Kanungo S , Nair GB , Mande SS , 2011. Metagenome of the gut of a malnourished child. Gut Pathog 3: 7.
Guerrant RL , Oria RB , Moore SR , Oria MO , Lima AA , 2008. Malnutrition as an enteric infectious disease with long-term effects on child development. Nutr Rev 66: 487–505.
Checkley W , Epstein LD , Gilman RH , Cabrera L , Black RE , 2003. Effects of acute diarrhea on linear growth in Peruvian children. Am J Epidemiol 157: 166–175.
Steiner TS , Lima AA , Nataro JP , Guerrant RL , 1998. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli produce intestinal inflammation and growth impairment and cause interleukin-8 release from intestinal epithelial cells. J Infect Dis 177: 88–96.
Lloyd-Evans N , Drasar BS , Tomkins AM , 1983. A comparison of the prevalence of Campylobacter, Shigellae and Salmonellae in faeces of malnourished and well nourished children in The Gambia and northern Nigeria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 77: 245–247.
Kakai R , Wamola IA , Bwayo JJ , Ndinya-Achola JO , 1995. Enteric pathogens in malnourished children with diarrhoea. East Afr Med J 72: 288–289.
Rao MR , Naficy AB , Savarino SJ , Abu-Elyazeed R , Wierzba TF , Peruski LF , Abdel-Messih I , Frenck R , Clemens JD , 2001. Pathogenicity and convalescent excretion of Campylobacter in rural Egyptian children. Am J Epidemiol 154: 166–173.
Kalischuk LD , Inglis GD , Buret AG , 2009. Campylobacter jejuni induces transcellular translocation of commensal bacteria via lipid rafts. Gut Pathog 1: 2.