We thank all the children and their caregivers who agreed to participate in this study; the community health workers; the local and national health authorities who provided their support, particularly the Ministry of Health National Malaria Control Division and the District Health Teams; our study teams from Makerere University School of Public Health (Uganda); and colleagues at the local CHAI and UNICEF offices.
Lozano R et al., 2012. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 380: 2095–2128.
United Nations , 2015. The UN InterAgency Group for Child Mortality Estimation—Levels and Trends in Child Mortality. Report 2015. New York, NY: United Nations Children’s Fund.
MoH , 2010. Integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Malaria, Pneumonia and Diarrhoea: Implementation Guide. Kampala, Uganda: Ministry of Health CHD, ed.
MoH , 2020. Ministry of Health Annual Health Sector Performance Report 2019/2020. Kampala, Uganda: Ministry of Health, Uganda.
Kallander K , Nsungwa-Sabiiti J , Peterson S , 2004. Symptom overlap for malaria and pneumonia—policy implications for home management strategies. Acta Trop 90: 211–214.
WHO, UNICEF , 2004. Management of Pneumonia in Community Settings. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization/United Nations Children’s Fund.
Mackintosh CL , Beeson JG , Marsh K , 2004. Clinical features and pathogenesis of severe malaria. Trends Parasitol 20: 597–603.
Young M , Wolfheim C , Marsh DR , Hammamy D , 2012. World Health Organization/United Nations Children’s Fund Joint Statement on integrated community case management: an equity-focused strategy to improve access to essential treatment services for children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 87: 6–10.
- Search Google Scholar
- Export Citation
Young M Wolfheim C Marsh DR Hammamy D 2012. World Health Organization/United Nations Children’s Fund Joint Statement on integrated community case management: an equity-focused strategy to improve access to essential treatment services for children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 87: 6– 10. 23136272
Brunner NC , Awor P , Hetzel MW , 2021. Definitions of severity in treatment seeking studies of febrile illness in children in low and middle income countries: a scoping review. Int J Public Health 66: 634000.
Lengeler CBC et al., 2021. Community access to rectal artesunate for malaria (CARAMAL): a large-scale observational implementation study in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Nigeria and Uganda. medRxiv 2021.12.10.21266567.
UBOS , 2018. Uganda Demographic Health Survey 2016. Kampala, Uganda, and Rockville, MD: Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS) and ICF.
Okello PE , Van Bortel W , Byaruhanga AM , Correwyn A , Roelants P , Talisuna A , D’Alessandro U , Coosemans M , 2006. Variation in malaria transmission intensity in seven sites throughout Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75: 219–225.
Ajayi IO et al., 2016. Feasibility of malaria diagnosis and management in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda: a community-based observational study. Clin Infect Dis 63: S245–S255.
Kassam R , Collins JB , Liow E , Rasool N , 2015. Caregivers’ treatment-seeking behaviors and practices in Uganda—a systematic review (Part II). Acta Trop 152: 269–281.
Adedokun ST , Yaya S , 2020. Factors influencing mothers’ health care seeking behaviour for their children: evidence from 31 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. BMC Health Serv Res 20: 842.
Akinyemi JO , Banda P , De Wet N , Akosile AE , Odimegwu CO , 2019. Household relationships and healthcare seeking behaviour for common childhood illnesses in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-national mixed effects analysis. BMC Health Serv Res 19: 308.
Price J , Lee J , Willcox M , Harnden A , 2019. Place of death, care-seeking and care pathway progression in the final illnesses of children under five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. J Glob Health 9: 020422.
Awor P , Wamani H , Bwire G , Jagoe G , Peterson S , 2012. Private sector drug shops in integrated community case management of malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea in children in Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg 87: 92–96.
Awor P , Peterson S , Gautham M , 2018. Delivering child health interventions through the private sector in low and middle income countries: challenges, opportunities, and potential next steps. BMJ 362: k2950.
Young M , Sharkey A , Aboubaker S , Kasungami D , Swedberg E , Ross K , 2014. The way forward for integrated community case management programmes: a summary of lessons learned to date and future priorities. J Glob Health 4: 020303.
Rasanathan K , Bakshi S , Rodriguez DC , Oliphant NP , Jacobs T , Brandes N , Young M , 2014. Where to from here? Policy and financing of integrated community case management (iCCM) of childhood illness in sub-Saharan Africa. J Glob Health 4: 020304.
Seidenberg PD , Hamer DH , Iyer H , Pilingana P , Siazeele K , Hamainza B , MacLeod WB , Yeboah-Antwi K , 2012. Impact of integrated community case management on health-seeking behavior in rural Zambia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 87: 105–110.
Hopkins H et al., 2017. Impact of introduction of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria on antibiotic prescribing: analysis of observational and randomised studies in public and private healthcare settings. BMJ 356: j1054.
Elven J et al., 2020. Non-malarial febrile illness: a systematic review of published aetiological studies and case reports from Africa, 1980–2015. BMC Med 18: 279.