We extend our heartfelt gratitude to Eka Kotebe Hospital for giving us the ethical clearance to undertake this study. We are also so grateful to the East African Training Initiative, sponsored by Vital Strategies and the Swiss Lung Foundation, for funding the data collection. The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene has waived the Open Access fee for this article due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
World Health Organization, 2021 Corona Virus Disease 19 (COVID-19) Pandemic. Available at: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019?gclid=CjwKCAjwzaSLBhBJEiwAJSRokrB3MPgON1vmtgMy0UEUkVHK5h6InWBSBV9TNYCBtrRS6Rin83M1khoCuFEQAvD_BwE. Accessed October 16, 2021.
World Health Organization , 2021. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). Available at: https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus#tab=tab_1. Accessed October 16, 2021.
Wong CKH , Wong JYH , Tang EHM , Au CH , Wai AKC , 2020. Clinical presentations, laboratory and radiological findings, and treatments for 11,028 COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep 10: 19765.
Olumade TJ , Uzairue LI , 2021. Clinical characteristics of 4499 COVID-19 patients in Africa: a meta-analysis. J Med Virol 93: 3055–3061.
Fu L et al.2020. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Infect 80: 656–665.
World Health Organization , 2020. Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Available at: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/who-china-joint-mission-on-covid-19-final-report.pdf. Accessed October 14, 2021.
Cervantes J , Sureen A , Galura G , Dodoo C , Dwivedi AK , Bashashati M , Zuckerman M , Meza A , 2021. Factors associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality among Hispanic patients living on the USA–Mexico border. J Investig Med. doi: 10.1136/jim-2020-001667.
Khan A , Althunayyan S , Alsofayan Y , Alotaibi R , Mubarak A , Arafat M , Assiri A , Jokhdar H , 2020. Risk factors associated with worse outcomes in COVID-19: a retrospective study in Saudi Arabia. East Mediterr Health J 26: 1371–1380.
Du R-H et al.2020. Predictors of mortality for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2: a prospective cohort study. Eur Respir J 55: 2000524.
Cummings MJ et al.2020. Epidemiology, clinical course, and outcomes of critically ill adults with COVID-19 in New York City: a prospective cohort study. Lancet 395: 1763–1770.
Mohammed M et al.2021. Risk factors associated with mortality among patients with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Africa. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 8: 1267–1272.
Li X , Zhong X , Wang Y , Zeng X , Luo T , Liu Q , 2021. Clinical determinants of the severity of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 16: e0250602.
Fouda Mbarga N et al.2021. Clinical profile and factors associated with COVID-19 in Yaounde, Cameroon: a prospective cohort study. PLoS One 16: e0251504.
Geng M-J et al.2021. Risk factors for developing severe COVID-19 in China: an analysis of disease surveillance data. Infect Dis Poverty 10: 48.
Soares RCM , Mattos LR , Raposo LM , 2020. Risk factors for hospitalization and mortality due to COVID-19 in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 103: 1184–1190. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-0483.
Jassat W et al.2021. Risk factors for COVID-19-related in-hospital mortality in a high HIV and tuberculosis prevalence setting in South Africa: a cohort study. Lancet HIV 8: e554–e567.
Zhou F et al.2020. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet 395: 1054–1062. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3.
Worldometer, 2021. Coronavirus: Ethiopia. Available at: https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/country/ethiopia/. Accessed October 8, 2021.
Africa WHO , 2020. First Case of COVID-19 Confirmed in Ethiopia. Available at: https://www.afro.who.int/news/first-case-covid-19-confirmed-ethiopia. Accessed October 16, 2021.
Langford BJ , So M , Raybardhan S , Leung V , Westwood D , MacFadden DR , Soucy J-PR , Daneman N , 2020. Bacterial co-infection and secondary infection in patients with COVID-19: a living rapid review and meta-analysis. Clin Microbiol Infect 26: 1622–1629.
Clancy CJ , Schwartz IS , Kula B , Nguyen MH , 2021. Bacterial superinfections among persons with coronavirus disease 2019: a comprehensive review of data from postmortem studies. Open Forum Infect Dis 8. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofab065.
Pickens CO et al.2021. Bacterial superinfection pneumonia in patients mechanically ventilated for COVID-19 pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 204: 921–932. doi: 10.1164/rccm.202106-1354OC.
Federal Ministry of Health, Ethiopia , 2020. National Comprehensive Covid19 Management Handbook, 1st ed. Available at; https://covidlawlab.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/National-Comprehensive-COVID19-Management-Handbook.pdf. Accessed October 14, 2021.
Federal Ministry of Health, Ethiopia , 2020. National Comprehensive COVID 19 Clinical Management Handbook for Ethiopia, 2nd ed. Available at: https://www.afro.who.int/news/first-case-covid-19-confirmed-ethiopia. Accessed October 14, 2021.
The REMAP-CAP, ACTIV-4a, and ATTACC Investigators, 2021. Therapeutic anticoagulation with heparin in critically ill patients with COVID-19. N Engl J Med 385: 777–789.
The RECOVERY Collaborative Group, 2020. Dexamethasone in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. N Engl J Med 384: 693–704.
Abraha HE et al.2021. Clinical features and risk factors associated with morbidity and mortality among patients with COVID-19 in northern Ethiopia. Int J Infect Dis 105: 776–783.
Abdela SG , Abegaz SH , Demsiss W , Tamirat KS , van Henten S , van Griensven J , 2020. Clinical profile and treatment of COVID-19 patients: experiences from an Ethiopian treatment center. Am J Trop Med Hyg 104: 532–536.
Gupta S et al.2020. Factors associated with death in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in the US. JAMA Intern Med 180: 1436–1447.
Li X et al.2020. Risk factors for severity and mortality in adult COVID-19 inpatients in Wuhan. J Allergy Clin Immunol 146: 110–118.
Leulseged TW et al.2021. Factors associated with development of symptomatic disease in Ethiopian COVID-19 patients: a case–control study. BMC Infect Dis 21: 759.
Ho FK et al.2020. Is older age associated with COVID-19 mortality in the absence of other risk factors? General population cohort study of 470,034 participants. PLoS One 15: e0241824.
Bonanad C et al.2020. The effect of age on mortality in patients with COVID-19: a meta-analysis with 611,583 subjects. J Am Med Dir Assoc 21: 915–918.
Nachega JB et al.2020. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in Africa: early insights from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Am J Trop Med Hyg 103: 2419–2428. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1240.
Morton B et al.2021. Distinct clinical and immunological profiles of patients with evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Nat Commun 12: 3554.
Bakamutumaho B et al.2021. Severe COVID-19 in Uganda across two epidemic phases: a prospective cohort study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 105: 740–744.
Richardson S et al.2020. Presenting characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes among 5700 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the New York City area. JAMA 323: 2052–2059.
Sulaiman T , Algharawi AA , Idrees M , Alzaidy RH , Faris K , Cullingford G , Rasheed J , 2020. The prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms among patients with COVID-19 and the effect on the severity of the disease. JGH Open 4: 1162–1166.
Nobel YR , Phipps M , Zucker J , Lebwohl B , Wang TC , Sobieszczyk ME , Freedberg DE , 2020. Gastrointestinal symptoms and coronavirus disease 2019: a case-control study from the United States. Gastroenterology 159: 373–375.e2.
Ramachandran P , Onukogu I , Ghanta S , Gajendran M , Perisetti A , Goyal H , Aggarwal A , 2020. Gastrointestinal symptoms and outcomes in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 patients. Dig Dis 38: 373–379.