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Access to Safe Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: A Cross-Sectional Study among the Maasai in Tanzania

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  • 1 Tanzania Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (TFELTP), Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania;
  • 2 Department of Epidemiology/Biostatistics, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

ABSTRACT

Safe water supply, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) are among key components to prevent and control waterborne diseases such as cholera, schistosomiasis, and other gastrointestinal morbidities in the community. In 2018, there was cholera outbreak in Ngorongoro district that was fueled by inadequate and unsafe water as well as poor sanitation and hygiene. We used an analytical cross-sectional study first to determine the proportion of households with access to WaSH and second to assess factors associated with coverage of household’s access to WaSH. Methods included interviewing heads of the household to assess the availability of safe drinking water, use of unshared toilet/latrine by household members only, and the availability of functional handwashing facility. Eight percent of households had access to WaSH. Access to household’s WaSH was positively associated with household’s monthly income, education of heads of the household, and water use per person per week. To control water-related morbidities, there is a need to improve access to reliable safe drinking water, expand alternatives of households to earn more incomes, and enhance proper sanitation and hygiene services to rural areas and marginalized groups like the Maasai of Ngorongoro in Tanzania.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Method Kazaura, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P. O. Box 65015, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. E-mail: methodkazaura@gmail.com

Authors’ addresses: Boniphace Jacob, Tanzania Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (TFELTP), Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, E-mail: mhabe.bj@gmail.com. Method Kazaura, Department of Epidemiology/Biostatistics, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, E-mail: methodkazaura@gmail.com.

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