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Revisiting the Chromosomal Diversification of the Genus Rhodnius (Stål, 1859) (Hemiptera, Triatominae)

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  • 1 Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (IBB/UNESP), Botucatu, Brazil;
  • 2 Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Laboratório de Parasitologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (FCFAR/UNESP), Araraquara, Brazil;
  • 3 Departamento de Biologia, Laboratório de Biologia Celular, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (IBILCE/UNESP), São José do Rio Preto, Brazil

ABSTRACT

Although all triatomines are considered as potential vectors of the Chagas disease, the Triatoma, Panstrongylus, and Rhodnius genera are the most important from the epidemiological point of view. Based on cytogenetic analyzes carried out so far (C banding and FISH), the species of the genus Rhodnius show little interspecific chromosomal variation. Thus, we analyzed the distribution of AT- and CG-rich DNA in the chromatin and chromosomes of the genus Rhodnius and discuss the chromosome evolution of these vectors. Except for Rhodnius domesticus, Rhodnius nasutus, Rhodnius pictipes, Rhodnius colombiensis, and Rhodnius pallescens, all Rhodnius species have euchromatic autosomes with the absence of AT- and CG-rich blocks. Curiously, the same species that have heterochromatin blocks in the autosomes also have chromomycin A3 (CMA3+) blocks dispersed in the prophasic nucleus (demonstrating that the heterochromatin of these species is rich in CG). Thus, we characterize the AT- and CG-rich DNA pattern for the genus Rhodnius, and we suggest that the pattern of CG-rich heterochromatin in the autosomes of these vectors evolved independently in pallescens, pictipes, and prolixus groups.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi, FCFAR/UNESP, Rodovia Araraquara-Jaú km 1, Araraquara, SP 14801-902, Brazil. E-mail: kaiochaboli@hotmail.com

Disclosure: The experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed.

Financial support: This work was financed by the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) (Number processes 2015/11372-1 and 2018/23846-6), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), and the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior-Brasil (CAPES), Finance Code 001.

Authors' addresses: Amanda Ravazi, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, Botucatu, Brazil, E-mail: amandaravazi95@gmail.com. Nicoly Olaia, Jader de Oliveira, Eder dos Santos Souza, João Aristeu da Rosa, and Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi, Laboratório de Parasitologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (FCFAR/UNESP), Araraquara, Brazil, E-mails: olaia.nicoly1@gmail.com, jdr.oliveira@hotmail.com, ederss1@hotmail.com, joaoaristeu@gmail.com, and kaiochaboli@hotmail.com. Maria Tercília Vilela de Azeredo-Oliveira, Departamento de Biologia, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas, São José do Rio Preto, Brazil, E-mail: tercilia.vilela@unesp.br.

These authors contributed equally to this work.

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