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Development of a Multiplex Bead Assay for the Detection of Canine IgG4 Antibody Responses to Guinea Worm

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  • 1 Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia;
  • 2 Institut de Recherche en Elevage pour le Développement (IRED), N’Djamena, Chad;
  • 3 Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland;
  • 4 Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia;
  • 5 Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia;
  • 6 The Carter Center, Atlanta, Georgia;
  • 7 Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia;
  • 8 World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Dracunculiasis Eradication, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

ABSTRACT

Increased levels of guinea worm (GW) disease transmission among dogs in villages along the Chari River in Chad threaten the gains made by the GW Eradication Program. Infected dogs with preemergent worm blisters are difficult to proactively identify. If these dogs are not contained, blisters can burst upon submersion in water, leading to the contamination of the water supply with L1 larvae. Guinea worm antigens previously identified using sera from human dracunculiasis patients were coupled to polystyrene beads for multiplex bead assay analysis of 41 non-endemic (presumed negative) dog sera and 39 sera from GW-positive dogs from Chad. Because commercially available anti-dog IgG secondary antibodies did not perform well in the multiplex assay, dog IgGs were partially purified, and a new anti-dog IgG monoclonal antibody was developed. Using the new 4E3D9 monoclonal secondary antibody, the thioredoxin-like protein 1–glutathione-S-transferase (GST), heat shock protein (HSP1)–GST, and HSP2–GST antigen multiplex assays had sensitivities of 69–74% and specificities of 73–83%. The domain of unknown function protein 148 (DUF148)–GST antigen multiplex assay had a sensitivity of 89.7% and a specificity of 85.4%. When testing samples collected within 1 year of GW emergence (n = 20), the DUF148–GST assay had a sensitivity of 90.0% and a specificity of 97.6% with a receiver-operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.94. Using sera from two experimentally infected dogs, antibodies to GW antigens were detected within 6 months of exposure. Our results suggest that, when used to analyze paired, longitudinal samples collected 1–2 months apart, the DUF148/GST multiplex assay could identify infected dogs 4–8 months before GW emergence.

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    • Supplementary Materials

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Jeffrey W. Priest, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mail Stop H23-9, Atlanta, GA 30329. E-mail: jpriest@cdc.gov

Disclaimer: The use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by the Public Health Service or by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the CDC or any other institution.

Financial support: The Parasitic Diseases Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, at the CDC serves as the WHO Collaborating Center for Dracunculiasis Eradication and received funding from the Carter Center in support of those activities. Dog serum collection in Chad was funded by the WHO. Support for research conducted at the University of Georgia was primarily from the Carter Center Guinea Worm Eradication Program. A full listing of supporters is available at http://www.cartercenter.org/donate/corporate-government-foundation-partners/index.html. Additional support was provided by the wildlife management agencies of the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study member states through the Federal Aid to Wildlife Restoration Act (50 Stat.917) and by a U.S. Department of the Interior Cooperative Agreement (G11AC20003). SGHS was partially funded by the University of Georgia.

Authors’ addresses: Jeffrey W. Priest, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: jpriest@cdc.gov. Bongo Nare Richard Ngandolo, Institut de Recherche en Elevage pour le Développement (IRED), N’Djamena, Chad, E-mail: bongo_nov@yahoo.fr. Monique Lechenne, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland, and Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Cornwall, United Kingdom, E-mail: m.s.lechenne@exeter.ac.uk. Christopher A. Cleveland and Michael J. Yabsley, Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, E-mails: ccleve@uga.edu and myabsley@uga.edu. Adam J. Weiss, The Carter Center, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: adam.weiss@cartercenter.org. Sharon L. Roy and Vitaliano Cama, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mails: str2@cdc.gov and vec5@cdc.gov.

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