Ahmed T, Auble D, Berkley JA, Black R, Ahern PP, Hossain M, Hsieh A, Ireen S, Arabi M, Gordon JI, 2014. An evolving perspective about the origins of childhood undernutrition and nutritional interventions that includes the gut microbiome. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1332: 22–38.
Blanton LV et al. 2016. Gut bacteria that prevent growth impairments transmitted by microbiota from malnourished children. Science 351: aad3311.
Gough EK et al. 2014. The impact of antibiotics on growth in children in low and middle income countries: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 348: g2267.
Korpela K, Salonen A, Virta LJ, Kekkonen RA, Forslund K, Bork P, de Vos WM, 2016. Intestinal microbiome is related to lifetime antibiotic use in Finnish pre-school children. Nat Commun 7: 10410.
Mbakwa CA, Scheres L, Penders J, Mommers M, Thijs C, Arts ICW, 2016. Early life antibiotic exposure and weight development in children. J Pediatr 176: 105–113.e2.
Azad MB, Bridgman SL, Becker AB, Kozyrskyj AL, 2014. Infant antibiotic exposure and the development of childhood overweight and central adiposity. Int J Obes 38: 1290–1298.
Bailey LC, Forrest CB, Zhang P, Richards TM, Livshits A, DeRusso PA, 2014. Association of antibiotics in infancy with early childhood obesity. JAMA Pediatr 168: 1063–1069.
Trasande L, Blustein J, Liu M, Corwin E, Cox LM, Blaser MJ, 2013. Infant antibiotic exposures and early-life body mass. Int J Obes 37: 16–23.
Jernberg C, Löfmark S, Edlund C, Jansson JK, 2007. Long-term ecological impacts of antibiotic administration on the human intestinal microbiota. ISME J 1: 56–66.
Dethlefsen L, Relman DA, 2011. Incomplete recovery and individualized responses of the human distal gut microbiota to repeated antibiotic perturbation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108: 4554–4561.
Doan T et al. 2017. Gut microbial diversity in antibiotic-naive children after systemic antibiotic exposure: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis 64: 1147–1153.
Oldenburg CE et al. 2018. Effect of commonly used pediatric antibiotics on gut microbial diversity in preschool children in Burkina Faso: a randomized clinical trial. Open Forum Infect Dis 5: ofy289.
Sié A et al. 2018. Effect of antibiotics on short-term growth among children in Burkina Faso: a randomized trial. Am J Trop Med Hyg 99: 789–796.
Gough EK, Stephens DA, Moodie EEM, Prendergast AJ, Stoltzfus RJ, Humphrey JH, Manges AR, 2015. Linear growth faltering in infants is associated with Acidaminococcus sp. and community-level changes in the gut microbiota. Microbiome 3: 24.
Zambruni M et al. 2019. Stunting is preceded by intestinal mucosal damage and microbiome changes and is associated with systemic inflammation in a cohort of Peruvian infants. Am J Trop Med Hyg 3: 1009–1017.
Sié A, Louis VR, Gbangou A, Müller O, Niamba L, Stieglbauer G, Yé M, Kouyaté B, Sauerborn R, Becher H, 2010. The health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in Nouna, Burkina Faso, 1993–2007. Glob Health Action 3, doi: 10.3402/gha.v3i0.5284.
World Health Organization, UNICEF, 2006. Core Questions on Drinking-Water and Sanitation for Household Surveys. Available at: https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/monitoring/oms_brochure_core_questionsfinal24608.pdf. Accessed May 29, 2019.