We thank all participants; staff at the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Angola; China, the Philippines, and Vietnam embassies; and provincial authorities in Luanda, Lunda Sul, and Zaire. We acknowledge the contribution of Albert Kilian in developing the study protocol and data collection instruments.
African Development Bank, 2019. African Economic Outlook 2020: Developing Africa’s Workforce for the Future. Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire: African Development Bank–Building Today, A Better Africa Tomorrow. Available at: https://www.afdb.org/en/knowledge/publications/african-economic-outlook. Accessed March 20, 2020.
International Labour Organization, 2019. Labour Migration in Africa. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Organization. Available at: http://www.ilo.org/africa/areas-of-work/labour-migration/WCMS_670561/lang--en/index.htm. Accessed March 20, 2020.
International Organization for Migration, 2016. Glossary on Migration (2019). Grand-Saconnex, Switzerland: International Organization for Migration. Available at: https://www.iom.int/glossary-migration-2019. Accessed March 20, 2020.
International Organization for Migration, 2020. World Migration Report 2020. Grand-Saconnex, Switzerland: IOM Online Bookstore. Available at: https://publications.iom.int/books/world-migration-report-2020. Accessed March 20, 2020.
Truzyan N, Crape B, Grigoryan R, Martirosyan H, Petrosyan V, 2015. Increased risk for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in migratory workers, Armenia. Emerg Infect Dis 21: 474–476.
Roper C, Pearce R, Nair S, Sharp B, Nosten F, Anderson T, 2004. Intercontinental spread of pyrimethamine-resistant malaria. Science 305: 1124.
Blasco B, Leroy D, Fidock DA, 2017. Antimalarial drug resistance: linking Plasmodium falciparum parasite biology to the clinic. Nat Med 23: 917–928.
Lai S 2016. Plasmodium falciparum malaria importation from Africa to China and its mortality: an analysis of driving factors. Sci Rep 6: 39524.
Wu H, Fang Z, Zhao D, Chen Y, Liu C, Liang X, 2017. A study on the epidemiological characteristics and infectious forecast model of malaria at Guangzhou airport among Chinese returnees from Africa. Malar J 16: 275.
Feng J, Li J, Yan H, Feng X, Xia Z, 2015. Evaluation of antimalarial resistance marker polymorphism in returned migrant workers in China. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 59: 326–330.
Yang C, Zhang H, Zhou R, Qian D, Liu Y, Zhao Y, Li S, Xu B, 2017. Polymorphisms of Plasmodium falciparum k13-propeller gene among migrant workers returning to Henan province, China from Africa. BMC Infect Dis 17: 560.
Tuite AR, Thomas-Bachli A, Acosta H, Bhatia D, Huber C, Petrasek K, Watts A, Yong JHE, Bogoch II, Khan K, 2018. Infectious disease implications of large-scale migration of Venezuelan nationals. J Travel Med 25: tay077.
Karunasena VM, 2019. The first introduced malaria case reported from Sri Lanka after elimination: implications for preventing the re-introduction of malaria in recently eliminated countries. Malar J 18: 210.
Matsee W, Chotivanich K, Chatapat L, Piyaphanee W, 2018. Case report: a cluster of Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases among Thai workers in Gembu, Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 99: 623–626.
Zhang M, Liu Z, He H, Luo L, Wang S, Bu H, Zhou X, 2011. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices on malaria prevention among Chinese international travelers. J Travel Med 18: 173–177.
United Nations Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2020. New York, NY: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Available at: https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates17.asp. Accessed March 20, 2020.
Plucinski MM 2019. Screening for Pfhrp2/3-deleted Plasmodium falciparum, non-falciparum, and low-density malaria infections by a multiplex antigen assay. J Infect Dis 219: 437–447.
Rogier E 2017. Bead-based immunoassay allows sub-picogram detection of histidine-rich protein 2 from Plasmodium falciparum and estimates reliability of malaria rapid diagnostic tests. PLoS One 12: e0172139.
Lucchi NW, Narayanan J, Karell MA, Xayavong M, Kariuki S, DaSilva AJ, Hill V, Udhayakumar V, 2013. Molecular diagnosis of malaria by photo-induced electron transfer fluorogenic primers: PET-PCR. PLoS One 8: e56677.
Talundzic E 2018. Next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics protocol for malaria drug resistance marker surveillance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 62: e02474-17.
Molina-Cruz A 2020. Plasmodium falciparum evades immunity of anopheline mosquitoes by interacting with a Pfs47 midgut receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 117: 2597–2605.
Thwing JI, Mihigo J, Fernandes AP, Saute F, Ferreira C, Fortes F, de Oliveira AM, Newman RD, 2009. How much malaria occurs in urban Luanda, Angola? A health facility-based assessment. Am J Trop Med Hyg 80: 487–491.
Sanchez JL, Bendet I, Grogl M, Lima JB, Pang LW, Guimaraes MF, Guedes CM, Milhous WK, Green MD, Todd GD, 2000. Malaria in Brazilian military personnel deployed to Angola. J Travel Med 7: 275–282.
INE, MINSA, The DHS Program, ICF, 2017. Angola Inquérito de Indicadores Múltiplos e de Saúde (IIMS) 2015–2016. Available at: https://dhsprogram.com/publications/publication-FR327-DHS-Final-Reports.cfm. Accessed April 8, 2020.
Van Hong N 2014. Severe malaria not responsive to artemisinin derivatives in man returning from Angola to Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis 20: 1207.
Ringwald P, Dondorp A, 2015. Severe malaria not responsive to artemisinin derivatives in man returning from Angola to Vietnam [letter]. Emerg Infect Dis 21: 1264–1265.
Van Hong N 2015. Severe malaria not responsive to artemisinin derivatives in man returning from Angola to Vietnam [letter]. Emerg Infect Dis 21: 1265.
Plucinski MM 2015. Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in children in Zaire and Uíge provinces, Angola. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 59: 437–443.
Plucinski MM 2017. Efficacy of artemether–lumefantrine, artesunate–amodiaquine, and dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Angola, 2015. Malar J 16: 62.
Davlantes E 2018. Efficacy and safety of artemether–lumefantrine, artesunate–amodiaquine, and dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in three provinces in Angola, 2017. Malar J 17: 144.
Plucinski MM 2018. Multiplex serology for impact evaluation of bed net distribution on burden of lymphatic filariasis and four species of human malaria in northern Mozambique. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 12: e0006278.
Landman KZ, Tan KR, Arguin PM, 2014. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding antimalarial chemoprophylaxis in U.S. Peace corps volunteers—Africa, 2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 63: 516–517.