We thank all the participants who contributed to our work. We acknowledge the support of Tsinghua University-INDITEX Sustainable Development Fund (Project no. TISD201904). Publication charges for this article were waived due to the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19.
Yáñez JA, Alvarez-Risco A, Delgado-Zegarra J, 2020. Rapid Response: Clearing the Path for COVID-19 in Peru? The Decision of Supervised Walks for Children and Adolescents. Available at: https://www.bmj.com/content/369/bmj.m1918/rr-9. Accessed June 3, 2020.
Yáñez JA, Alvarez-Risco A, Delgado-Zegarra J, 2020. COVID-19 in Peru: from supervised walks for children to the first case of Kawasaki-like syndrome. BMJ 369: m2418.
Yáñez JA, Alvarez-Risco A, Delgado-Zegarra J, 2020. Rapid Response: Does Peru Really Have That High Number of COVID-19 Confirmed Cases? The Deception of Combining RT-PCR and Rapid Test Results. Available at: https://www.bmj.com/content/369/bmj.m2518/rr-4. Accessed July 1, 2020.
MINSA, 2020. Alerta Epidemiológica AE-013-2020. Available at: https://www.dge.gob.pe/portal/docs/alertas/2020/AE013.pdf. Accessed May 26, 2020.
MINEDU, 2020. Minedu Suspende Clases en Universidades Públicas y Privadas para Evitar Propagación del Coronavirus. Available at: https://www.gob.pe/institucion/minedu/noticias/108801-minedu-suspende-clases-en-universidades-publicas-y-privadas-para-evitar-propagacion-del-coronavirus. Accessed March 23, 2020.
PCM, 2020. Decreto Supremo No 044-2020-PCM - Estado de Emergencia Nacional por las Graves Circunstancias que Afectan la vida de la Nación a consecuencia del brote del COVID-19. Gobierno del Peru: Presidencia del Consejo de Ministros.
Lima CKT, Carvalho PMdM, Lima IdAAS, Nunes JVAdO, Saraiva JS, de Souza RI, da Silva CGL, Neto MLR, 2020. The emotional impact of coronavirus 2019-nCoV (new coronavirus disease). Psychiatry Res 287: 112915.
Cao W, Fang Z, Hou G, Han M, Xu X, Dong J, Zheng J, 2020. The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry Res 287: 112934.
Qiu J, Shen B, Zhao M, Wang Z, Xie B, Xu Y, 2020. A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: implications and policy recommendations. Gen Psychiatr 33: e100213.
Zhang SX, Wang Y, Rauch A, Wei F, 2020. Unprecedented disruption of lives and work: health, distress and life satisfaction of working adults in China one month into the COVID-19 outbreak. Psychiatry Res 288: 112958.
Zhang SX, Liu J, Afshar Jahanshahi A, Nawaser K, Yousefi A, Li J, Sun S, 2020. At the height of the storm: healthcare staff’s health conditions and job satisfaction and their associated predictors during the epidemic peak of COVID-19. Brain Behav Immun 87: 144–146.
Tang PM, Zhang SX, Li CH, Wei F, 2020. Geographical identification of the vulnerable groups during COVID-19 crisis: the typhoon eye effect and its boundary conditions. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci (Epub ahead of print 17 July 2020).
Lai J 2020. Factors associated with mental health outcomes among health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019. JAMA Netw Open 3: e203976.
Kang L 2020. Impact on mental health and perceptions of psychological care among medical and nursing staff in Wuhan during the 2019 novel coronavirus disease outbreak: a cross-sectional study. Brain Behav Immun 87: 11–17.
Jahanshahi AA, Dinani MM, Madavani AN, Li J, Zhang SX, 2020. The distress of Iranian adults during the COVID-19 pandemic - more distressed than the Chinese and with different predictors. Brain Behav Immun 87: 124–125.
Moccia L 2020. Affective temperament, attachment style, and the psychological impact of the COVID-19 outbreak: an early report on the Italian general population. Brain Behav Immun 87: 75–79.
Mazza C, Ricci E, Biondi S, Colasanti M, Ferracuti S, Napoli C, Roma P, 2020. A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Italian people during the COVID-19 pandemic: immediate psychological responses and associated factors. Int J Environ Res Public Health 17: 3165.
Bacon AM, Corr PJ, 2020. Coronavirus (COVID-19) in the United Kingdom: a personality-based perspective on concerns and intention to self-isolate. Br J Health Psychol (Epub ahead of print 29 April 2020).
Ozamiz-Etxebarria N, Dosil-Santamaria M, Picaza-Gorrochategui M, Idoiaga-Mondragon N, 2020. Stress, anxiety, and depression levels in the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak in a population sample in the northern Spain. Cad Saude Publica 36: e00054020.
Gonzalez-Sanguino C, Ausin B, AngelCastellanos M, Saiz J, Lopez-Gomez A, Ugidos C, Munoz M, 2020. Mental health consequences during the initial stage of the 2020 coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) in Spain. Brain Behav Immun 87: 172–176.
Lagasse J, 2020. Healthcare Workers Risk Burnout, Exposure in Wake of Coronavirus Pandemic. Available at: https://www.healthcarefinancenews.com/news/healthcare-workers-risk-burnout-exposure-wake-coronavirus-pandemic. Accessed May 15, 2020.
Langer G, 2020. Coronavirus Impacts: Disrupted Lives, Elevated Stress, and Soaring Worry. Available at: https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/coronavirus-impacts-disrupted-lives-elevated-stress-soaring-worry/story?id=69812058. Accessed May 15, 2020.
Xiang Y-T, Yang Y, Li W, Zhang L, Zhang Q, Cheung T, Ng CH, 2020. Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed. Lancet Psychiatry 7: 228–229.
Brooks S, Webster R, Smith L, Woodland L, Wessely S, Greenberg N, Rubin G, 2020. The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. Lancet 395: P912–P920.
Lombardo P, Jones W, Wang L, Shen X, Goldner EM, 2018. The fundamental association between mental health and life satisfaction: results from successive waves of a Canadian national survey. BMC Public Health 18: 342.
Koivumaa-Honkanen H, Kaprio J, Honkanen RJ, Viinamaki H, Koskenvuo M, 2005. The stability of life satisfaction in a 15-year follow-up of adult Finns healthy at baseline. BMC Psychiatry 5: 4.
Xie X-F, Stone E, Zheng R, Zhang R-G, 2011. The ‘typhoon eye effect’: determinants of distress during the SARS epidemic. J Risk Res 14: 1091–1107.
Li S, Rao L-L, Ren X-P, Bai X-W, Zheng R, Li J-Z, Wang Z-J, Liu H, 2009. Psychological typhoon eye in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. PLoS One 4: e4964.
Zhang SX, Huang H, Wei F, 2020. Geographical distance to the epicenter of COVID-19 predicts the burnout of the working population: ripple effect or typhoon eye effect? Psychiatry Res 288: 112998.
Halpern-Felsher BL, Millstein SG, Ellen JM, Adler NE, Tschann JM, Biehl M, 2001. The role of behavioral experience in judging risks. Health Psychol 20: 120–126.
Des Jarlais DC, Galea S, Tracy M, Tross S, Vlahov D, 2006. Stigmatization of newly emerging infectious diseases: AIDS and SARS. Am J Public Health 96: 561–567.
Kinsman J, 2012. “A time of fear”: local, national, and international responses to a large Ebola outbreak in Uganda. Global Health 8: 15.
Gao J, Zheng P, Jia Y, Chen H, Mao Y, Chen S, Wang Y, Fu H, Dai J, 2020. Mental health problems and social media exposure during COVID-19 outbreak. PLoS One 15: e0231924.
Rafiey H, Momtaz YA, Alipour F, Khankeh H, Ahmadi S, Sabzi Khoshnami M, Haron SA, 2016. Are older people more vulnerable to long-term impacts of disasters? Clin Interv Aging 11: 1791–1795.
Lau AL, Chi I, Cummins RA, Lee TM, Chou KL, Chung LW, 2008. The SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) pandemic in Hong Kong: effects on the subjective wellbeing of elderly and younger people. Aging Ment Health 12: 746–760.
Greenwood S, Perrin A, Duggan M, 2016. Social Media Update 2016: Facebook Usage and Engagement Is on the Rise, while Adoption of Other Formats Holds Steady. Available at: https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2016/11/11/social-media-update-2016/. Accessed June 24, 2020.
Kessler RC, Downey G, Milavsky JR, Stipp H, 1988. Clustering of teenage suicides after television news stories about suicides: a reconsideration. Am J Psychiatry 145: 1379–1383.
Novilla ML, Barnes MD, De La Cruz NG, Williams PN, Rogers J, 2006. Public health perspectives on the family: an ecological approach to promoting health in the family and community. Fam Community Health 29: 28–42.
MINSA, 2020. Minsa: Casos Confirmados por Coronavirus COVID-19 Ascienden a 5 897 en el Perú (Comunicado N° 61). Available at: https://www.gob.pe/institucion/minsa/noticias/112148-minsa-casos-confirmados-por-coronavirus-covid-19-ascienden-a-5-897-en-el-peru-comunicado-n-61. Accessed June 24, 2020.
MINSA, 2020. Minsa: Casos Confirmados por Coronavirus COVID-19 Ascienden a 42 534 (Comunicado N° 85). Available at: https://www.gob.pe/institucion/minsa/noticias/143615-minsa-casos-confirmados-por-coronavirus-covid-19-ascienden-a-42-534-comunicado-n-85. Accessed June 24, 2020.
He XY, Li C, Qian J, Cui HS, Wu WY, 2010. Reliability and validity of a generalized anxiety scale in general hospital outpatients. Shanghai Arch Psychiatry 22: 200–203.
Metcalf AY, Stoller JK, Habermann M, Fry TD, 2015. Respiratory therapist job perceptions: the impact of protocol use. Respir Care 60: 1556–1559.
Tong X, An D, McGonigal A, Park S-P, Zhou D, 2016. Validation of the generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7) among Chinese people with epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 120: 31–36.
Prochaska JJ, Sung H-Y, Max W, Shi Y, Ong M, 2012. Validity study of the K6 scale as a measure of moderate mental distress based on mental health treatment need and utilization. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 21: 88–97.
Funk M, Saraceno B, Pathare S, 2003. Organization of Services for Mental Health. Available at: https://www.who.int/mental_health/policy/services/4_organisation%20services_WEB_07.pdf?ua=1. Accessed June 14, 2020.
Arriola-Vigo JA, Stovall JG, Moon TD, Audet CM, Diez-Canseco F, 2019. Perceptions of community involvement in the Peruvian mental health reform process among clinicians and policy-makers: a qualitative study. Int J Health Policy Manag 8: 711–722.
Zafra-Tanaka JH, Pacheco-Barrios K, Inga-Berrospi F, Taype-Rondan A, 2019. Self-perceived competencies in the diagnosis and treatment of mental health disorders among general practitioners in Lima, Peru. BMC Med Educ 19: 464.
Rissanen T, Viinamäki H, Lehto SM, Hintikka J, Honkalampi K, Saharinen T, Koivumaa-Honkanen H, 2013. The role of mental health, personality disorders and childhood adversities in relation to life satisfaction in a sample of general population. Nord J Psychiatry 67: 109–115.
Brody DJ, Pratt LA, Hughes JP, 2018. Prevalence of depression among adults aged 20 and over: united states, 2013–2016. NCHS Data Brief 303: 1–8.
Chang-kyong P, 2020. Coronavirus Cluster Emerges at Another South Korean Church, as Others Press Ahead with Sunday Services. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/week-asia/health-environment/article/3077497/coronavirus-cluster-emerges-another-south-korean. Accessed May 24, 2020.