Publication charges for this article were waived due to the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19.
Prompetchara E, Ketloy C, Palaga T, 2020. Immune responses in COVID-19 and potential vaccines: lessons learned from SARS and MERS epidemic. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 38: 1–9.
Shi Y, Wang Y, Shao C, Huang J, Gan J, Huang X, Bucci E, Piacentini M, Ippolito G, Melino G, 2020. COVID-19 infection: the perspectives on immune responses. Cell Death Differ 27: 1451–1454.
Ahmed S, Raqib R, Guethmundsson GH, Bergman P, Agerberth B, Rekha RS, 2020. Host-directed therapy as a novel treatment strategy to overcome tuberculosis: targeting immune modulation. Antibiotics (Basel) 9: E21.
Zumla A, Hui DS, Azhar EI, Memish ZA, Maeurer M, 2020. Reducing mortality from 2019-nCoV: host-directed therapies should be an option. Lancet 395: e35–e36.
Chen N et al. 2020. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet 395: 507–513.
Zhang R, Wang X, Ni L, Di X, Ma B, Niu S, Liu C, Reiter RJ, 2020. COVID-19: melatonin as a potential adjuvant treatment. Life Sci 253: 117583.
Burgos-Moron E et al. 2019. Relationship between oxidative stress, ER stress, and inflammation in type 2 diabetes: the battle continues. J Clin Med 8: E1385.
Schuiveling M, Vazirpanah N, Radstake T, Zimmermann M, Broen JCA, 2018. Metformin, a new era for an old drug in the treatment of immune mediated disease? Curr Drug Targets 19: 945–959.
Ba W, Xu Y, Yin G, Yang J, Wang R, Chi S, Wang Y, Li C, 2019. Metformin inhibits pro-inflammatory responses via targeting nuclear factor-kappaB in HaCaT cells. Cell Biochem Funct 37: 4–10.
Ouyang J, Isnard S, Lin J, Fombuena B, Marette A, Routy B, Chen Y, Routy JP, 2020. Metformin effect on gut microbiota: insights for HIV-related inflammation. AIDS Res Ther 17: 10.
Yew WW, Chang KC, Chan DP, Zhang Y, 2019. Metformin as a host-directed therapeutic in tuberculosis: is there a promise? Tuberculosis (Edinb) 115: 76–80.
Diniz Vilela D, Gomes Peixoto L, Teixeira RR, Belele Baptista N, Carvalho Caixeta D, Vieira de Souza A, Machado HL, Pereira MN, Sabino-Silva R, Espindola FS, 2016. The role of metformin in controlling oxidative stress in muscle of diabetic rats. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2016: 6978625.