1921
Volume 103, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Since late December 2019, the world has been challenged with an outbreak of COVID-19. In Thailand, an upper middle–income country with a limited healthcare infrastructure and restricted human resources, nearly 3,000 confirmed COVID-19 cases have been reported as of early May 2020. Public health policies aimed at preventing new COVID-19 cases were very effective in halting the pandemic in Thailand. Case fatality in Thailand has been low (1.7%), at least in part due to early stratification according to risk of disease severity and timely initiation of supportive care with affordable measures. We present our initial experience with COVID-19 in Thailand, focusing on several aspects that may have played a crucial role in curtailment of the pandemic, and elements of care for severely ill COVID-19 patients, including stratification, isolation, and affordable diagnostic approaches and supportive care measures. We also discuss local considerations concerning some proposed experimental treatments.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0442
2020-05-18
2020-08-09
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/103/1/tpmd200442.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0442&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ghebreyesus TA, 2020. WHO Director-General’s Opening Remarks at the Media Briefing on COVID-19-1 May 2020. Geneva, Switzerland:World Health Organization. Available at: https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---1-may-2020. Accessed May 4, 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Johns Hopkins University, 2020. COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University. Available at: https://www.arcgis.com/apps/opsdashboard/index.html#/bda7594740fd40299423467b48e9ecf6. Accessed May 4, 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Okada P et al., 2020 Early transmission patterns of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in travellers from Wuhan to Thailand, January 2020. Eurosurveillance 25: 2000097.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Sivakorn C, Luvira V, Muangnoicharoen S, Piroonamornpun P, Ouppapong T, Mungaomklang A, Iamsirithaworn S, 2020. Case report: walking pneumonia in novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19): mild symptoms with marked abnormalities on chest imaging. Am J Trop Med Hyg 102: 940942.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Pongpirul WA, Pongpirul K, Ratnarathon AC, Prasithsirikul W, 2020. Journey of a Thai taxi driver and novel coronavirus. N Engl J Med 382: 10671068.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Peiris JS, Yuen KY, Osterhaus AD, Stöhr K, 2003. The severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med 349: 24312441.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Rosenthal PJ, 2020. The importance of diagnostic testing during a viral pandemic: early lessons from novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). 102: 915916.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Department of Disease Control, 2020. Guidelines for Health Care and Public Health Workers. Available at: https://ddc.moph.go.th/viralpneumonia/eng/guidelines.php. Accessed May 1, 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. [Google Scholar]
  10. Chen C et al., 2020. Favipiravir versus arbidol for COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial. MedRxiv, doi: 10.1101/2020.03.17.20037432.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Wang W, Xu Y, Gao R, Lu R, Han K, Wu G, Tan W, 2020. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in different types of clinical specimens. JAMA, doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.3786.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Salehi S, Abedi A, Balakrishnan S, Gholamrezanezhad A, 2020. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a systematic review of imaging findings in 919 patients. Am J Roentgenol 14: 17.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Emergency Response Epidemiology Team, 2020. The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in China. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 41: 145151.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Dondorp AM, Schultz MJ, 2020. Early lessons on the importance of lung imaging in novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Am J Trop Med Hyg 102: 917918.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Riviello ED, Buregeya E, Twagirumugabe T, 2017. Diagnosing acute respiratory distress syndrome in resource limited settings: the Kigali modification of the Berlin definition. Curr Opin Crit Care 23: 1823.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Sanders JM, Monogue ML, Jodlowski TZ, Cutrell JB, 2020. Pharmacologic treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a review. JAMA, doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.6019.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. van den Boom W, Hoy M, Sankaran J, Liu M, Chahed H, Feng M, See KC, 2020. The search for optimal oxygen saturation targets in critically ill patients: observational data from large ICU databases. Chest 157: 566573.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Intensive Care Society, 2020. Guidance for Prone Positioning of the Conscious COVID-19 Patient 2020. Available at: https://icmanaesthesiacovid-19.org/news/ics-guidance-for-prone-positioning-of-the-conscious-covid-patient-2020. Accessed May 4, 2020.
  19. Perkins GD, Zideman D, Monsieurs K, 2016. ERC Guidelines recommended to continue monitoring the patient placed in the recovery position. Resuscitation 105: e3.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Brochard L, Slutsky A, Pesenti A, 2017. Mechanical ventilation to minimize progression of lung injury in acute respiratory failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 195: 438442.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Dondorp AM, Hayat M, Aryal D, Beane A, Schultz MJ, 2020. Respiratory support in novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients, with a focus on resource-limited settings. Am J Trop Med Hyg 102: 11911197.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Gattinoni L, Chiumello D, Caironi P, Busana M, Romitti F, Brazzi L, Camporota L, 2020. COVID-19 pneumonia: different respiratory treatments for different phenotypes?. Intensive Care Med. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-06033-2.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Marini JJ, Gattinoni L, 2020. Management of COVID-19 respiratory distress. JAMA, doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.6825.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Gautret P et al., 2020. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. Int J Antimicrob Agents 105949. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Wu C et al., 2020 Risk factors associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and death in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA Intern Med, doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.0994.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Zhou F et al., 2020. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet 395: 10541062.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Shen C et al., 2020. Treatment of 5 critically ill patients with COVID-19 with convalescent plasma. JAMA 323: 15821589.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Cao W, Liu X, Bai T, Fan H, Hong K, Song H, Han Y, Lin L, Ruan L, Li T, 2020. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin as a therapeutic option for deteriorating patients with coronavirus disease 2019. Open Forum Infect Dis 7: ofaa102.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Ma J et al., 2020. Potential effect of blood purification therapy in reducing cytokine storm as a late complication of severe COVID-19. Clin Immunol 214: 108408.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Mehta P, McAuley DF, Brown M, Sanchez E, Tattersall RS, Manson JJ, 2020. COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression. Lancet 395: 10331034.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Russell CD, Millar JE, Baillie JK, 2020. Clinical evidence does not support corticosteroid treatment for 2019-nCoV lung injury. Lancet 395: 473475.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Xu K et al., 2020. Factors associated with prolonged viral RNA shedding in patients with COVID-19. Clin Infect Dis ciaa351. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa351.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Poston JT, Patel BK, Davis AM, 2020. Management of critically ill adults with COVID-19. JAMA, doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.4914.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Shimabukuro-Vornhagen A, Gödel P, Subklewe M, Stemmler HJ, Schlößer HA, Schlaak M, Kochanek M, Böll B, von Bergwelt-Baildon MS, 2018. Cytokine release syndrome. J Immunother Cancer 6: 56.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Xu X et al., 2020. Effective treatment of severe COVID-19 patients with tocilizumab. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 202005615. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2005615117.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Tang N, Li D, Wang X, Sun Z, 2020. Abnormal coagulation parameters are associated with poor prognosis in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia. J Thromb Haemost 18: 12331234.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0442
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0442
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 08 May 2020
  • Accepted : 11 May 2020
  • Published online : 18 May 2020

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error