1921
Volume 102, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Saint Lucia at one time had levels of schistosomiasis prevalence and morbidity as high as many countries in Africa. However, as a result of control efforts and economic development, including more widespread access to sanitation and safe water, schistosomiasis on the island has practically disappeared. To evaluate the current status of schistosomiasis in Saint Lucia, we conducted a nationally representative school-based survey of 8–11-year-old children for prevalence of infections using circulating antigen and specific antibody detection methods. We also conducted a questionnaire about available water sources, sanitation, and contact with fresh water. The total population of 8–11-year-old children on Saint Lucia was 8,985; of these, 1,487 (16.5%) provided urine for antigen testing, 1,455 (16.2%) provided fingerstick blood for antibody testing, and 1,536 (17.1%) answered the questionnaire. Although a few children were initially low positives by antigen or antibody detection methods, none could be confirmed positive by follow-up testing. Most children reported access to clean water and sanitary facilities in or near their homes and 48% of the children reported contact with fresh water. Together, these data suggest that schistosomiasis transmission has been interrupted on Saint Lucia. Additional surveys of adults, snails, and a repeat survey among school-age children will be necessary to verify these findings. However, in the same way that research on Saint Lucia generated the data leading to use of mass drug administration for schistosomiasis control, the island may also provide the information needed for guidelines to verify interruption of schistosomiasis transmission.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0904
2020-02-10
2020-04-06
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/102/4/tpmd190904.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0904&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. WHO, 2016. Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiases: number of people treated in 2015. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 91: 585600.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Colley DG, Bustinduy AL, Secor WE, King CH, 2014. Human schistosomiasis. Lancet 383: 22532264.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Zoni AC, Catalá L, Ault SK, 2016. Schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity of infection in Latin America and the Caribbean countries, 1942–2014: a systematic review in the context of a regional elimination goal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10: ee0004493.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Sady H, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Mahdy MAK, Lim YAL, Mahmud R, Surin J, 2013. Prevalence and associated factors of schistosomiasis among children in Yemen: implications for an effective control programme. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2377.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Jordan P, 1985. Schistosomiasis, the Saint Lucia Project. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Ivy JA, King CH, Cook JA, Colley DG, 2018. Historical perspective: revisiting the St. Lucia project, a multi-year comparison trial of schistosomiasis control strategies. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 12: e0006223.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Kurup R, Hunjan GS, 2010. Epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections among school children in three rural villages of south Saint Lucia. J Vector Borne Dis 47: 228234.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Fredericks-James M, Gaspard J, Atkins L, 2019. Schistosomiasis school survey in St Lucia: April 2017–May 2018. West Indian Med J 68 (Suppl 1): 30.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. WHO, 2012. World Health Assembly Resolution WGA 65.21 Elimination of Schistosomiasis. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Haggag AA, Rabiee A, Elaziz KMA, Campbell CH, Colley DG, Ramzy RMR, 2019. Thirty-day daily comparisons of Kato-Katz and CCA assays of 45 Egyptian children in areas with very low prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni. Am J Trop Med Hyg 100: 578583.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Haggag AA, Casacuberta Partal M, Rabiee A, Abd Elaziz KM, Campbell CH, Colley DG, Ramzy RMR, 2019. Multiple praziquantel treatments of Schistosoma mansoni egg-negative, CCA-positive schoolchildren in a very low endemic setting in Egypt do not consistently alter CCA results. Am J Trop Med Hyg 100: 15071511.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Corstjens PLAM, Nyakundi RK, de Dood CJ, Kariuki TM, Ochola EA, Karanja DMS, Mwinzi PNM, van Dam GJ, 2015. Improved sensitivity of the urine CAA lateral-flow assay for diagnosing active Schistosoma infections by using larger sample volumes. Parasit Vectors 8: 241.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Carter CE, Colley DG, 1978. An electrophoretic analysis of Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigen preparation. J Parasitol 64: 285290.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Tsang VCW, Hancock K, Maddison SE, Beatty AL, Moss DM, 1985. Demonstration of species-specific and cross-reactive components of the adult microsomal antigens from Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum (MAMA and JAMA). J Immunol 132: 26072613.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Fukushige M, Mutapi F, Woolhouse MEJ, 2019. Population level changes in schistosome-specific antibody levels following chemotherapy. Parasite Immunol 41: e12604.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Pointier JP, 1993.The introduction of Melanoides tuberculate (Mollusca: Thiaridae) to the island of Saint Lucia (West Indies) and its role in the decline of Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Acta Trop 54: 1318.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0904
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0904
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 06 Dec 2019
  • Accepted : 03 Jan 2020
  • Published online : 10 Feb 2020

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error