Volume 102, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a major global public health problem. Thailand is listed as one of the countries with a high burden of pulmonary TB. Various factors are known to contribute to unsuccessful pulmonary TB treatment. However, studies in Thailand remain limited, especially in rural settings. This study aimed to identify the prevalence and associated factors of unsuccessful pulmonary TB treatment in community hospitals. A cross-sectional study was conducted from June–July 2019. We enrolled all patients receiving treatments in four community hospitals in central Thailand. The collected data included baseline characteristics, comorbid illnesses, a history of directly observed treatment—short course (DOTS), sputum acid-fast bacilli smear results, and chest radiography and treatment outcomes. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify factors associated with unsuccessful pulmonary TB treatment. A total of 786 patients were enrolled in the study. Prevalence of unsuccessful treatment was 18.7%. Associated factors of unsuccessful pulmonary TB treatment were previously treated TB (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2–3.7), existence of comorbid illnesses (AOR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.5–5.0), DOTS not performed (AOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4–4.5), chest radiography showing multiple lung lesions at first diagnosis (AOR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.7–5.2), no chest radiography improvement in the first follow-up (AOR: 17.7, 95% CI: 8.2–38.0), and unknown status of chest radiography in the first follow-up (AOR: 48.1, 95% CI: 22.3–103.5). Health promotion and primary care should be implemented in the communities to achieve ultimate successful treatment.


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  • Received : 30 Jul 2019
  • Accepted : 02 Dec 2019
  • Published online : 13 Jan 2020
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