1921
Volume 100, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Forty-five egg–negative/circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) low (Trace-1+) positive children in areas of very low prevalence were followed up daily for 30 days. Stool and urine specimens were collected and examined each day from each child. At the midpoint of the study, three egg-positive control persons with light intensity infection were included in the protocol. Stool samples were examined by the Kato–Katz (four slides/stool sample) technique and all egg–negative stools were further tested by the “miracidia hatching test” (MHT). Urine samples were examined by the point-of-care CCA assay (POC-CCA). Over 30 days, only one of 1,338 consecutive stool samples from study subjects was egg and MHT positive (0.07%). Egg counts fluctuated daily in stools from positive controls and miracidia were detected in all but two samples by the MHT. Point-of-care–circulating cathodic antigen bands were scored from G1 to G10 and then translated to standard Trace, 1+, 2+, 3+ banding patterns. In two districts, the POC-CCA assays were Trace or 1+ for both the study children and the positive controls. In the third district, the POC-CCA assays were Trace or 1+ for the study children and 1+ or 2+ for the positive control. We conclude that in areas with extremely low prevalence egg–negative and CCA-Trace or 1+ children are unlikely to pose substantial risks to continued transmission of schistosomiasis. In this setting, POC-CCA Trace or 1+ readings are likely to be false positives or perhaps represent low-level single-sex schistosome infections.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0829
2019-01-02
2019-04-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/100/3/tpmd180829.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0829&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Steinmann P, Keiser J, Bos R, Tanner M, Utzinger J, , 2006. Schistosomiasis and water resources development: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimates of people at risk. Lancet Infect Dis 6: 411425. [Google Scholar]
  2. WHO, Global Health Observatory, 2016. Neglected Tropical Diseases. Schistosomiasis. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Available at: http://apps.who.int/neglected_diseases/ntddata/sch/sch.html . Accessed August 16, 2018. [Google Scholar]
  3. WHO, 2013. Schistosomiasis Progress Report. 2001–2011 and Strategic Plan 2012–2020. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  4. Kajihara N, Hirayama K, , 2011. The war against a regional disease in Japan: a history of the eradication of schistosomiasis Japonica. Trop Med Health Mar 39(1 Suppl 1): 344. [Google Scholar]
  5. Amarir F, Sebti F, Abbasi I, Sadak A, Fellah H, Nhammi H, Ameur B, El Idrissi AL, Rhajaoui M, , 2014. Schistosoma haematobium detection in snails by DraI PCR and Sh110/Sm-Sl PCR: further evidence of the interruption of schistosomiasis transmission in Morocco. Parasites Vectors 7: 288. [Google Scholar]
  6. Berry-Cabán CS, , 2013. Schistosomiasis control in Puerto Rico-the division of community education. J Community Med Health Educ 3: 7. [Google Scholar]
  7. WHO, 2012. World Health Assembly Resolution WHA 65.21 Elimination of Schistosomiasis. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  8. WHO, 2011. Report of an Informal Consultation on Schistosomiasis Control. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO/HTM/NTD/PCT/2013.3. [Google Scholar]
  9. Engels D, Sinzinkayo E, Gryseels B, , 1996. Day-to-day egg count fluctuation in Schistosoma mansoni infection and its operational implications. Am J Trop Med Hyg 54: 319324. [Google Scholar]
  10. Colley DG, 2013. A five-country evaluation of a point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen urine assay for the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni. Am J Trop Med Hyg 88: 426432. [Google Scholar]
  11. Silveira AM, Costa EG, Ray D, Suzuki BM, Hsieh MH, Fraga LA, Caffrey CR, , 2016. Evaluation of the CCA immuno-chromatographic test to diagnose Schistosoma mansoni in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10: e0004357. [Google Scholar]
  12. Mwinzi PNM, Kittur N, Ochola E, Cooper PJ, Campbell CH, Jr. King CH, Colley DG, , 2015. Additional evaluation of the point-of-contact circulating cathodic antigen assay for Schistosoma mansoni infection. Front Public Health 3: 18. [Google Scholar]
  13. Haggag AA, Rabiee A, Abd Elaziz KM, Gabrielli AF, Abdel Hay R, Ramzy RM, , 2017. Mapping of Schistosoma mansoni in the Nile Delta, Egypt: assessment of the prevalence by the circulating cathodic antigen urine assay. Acta Trop 167: 917. [Google Scholar]
  14. Sousa-Figueiredo JC, 2015. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths in Namibia: the first large-scale protocol to formally include rapid diagnostic tests. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9: e0003831. [Google Scholar]
  15. Katz N, Chaves A, Pellegrino JP, , 1972. A simple device for quantitative stool thick-smear in Schistosoma mansoni. Rev Inst Med Trop 14: 397400. [Google Scholar]
  16. Lotfy WM, , 2009. Development and evaluation of an egg hatching technique for diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni. Parasitol Inter 2: 127132. [Google Scholar]
  17. Lamberton PHL, Kabatereine NB, Oguttu DW, Fenwick A, Webster JP, . 2014. Sensitivity and specificity of multiple Kato-Katz thick smears and a circulating cathodic antigen test for Schistosoma mansoni diagnosis pre- and post-repeated-praziquantel treatment. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e3139. [Google Scholar]
  18. Barreto ML, Silva JT, Mott KE, Lehman JS, Jr., 1978. Stability of faecal egg excretion in Schistosoma mansoni infection. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 72: 181187. [Google Scholar]
  19. Teesdale CH, Fahringer K, Chitsulo L, , 1985. Egg count variability and sensitivity of a thin smear technique for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 79: 369373. [Google Scholar]
  20. Coulibaly JT, 2011. Accuracy of urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) test for S. mansoni diagnosis in different settings of Côte d’Ivoire. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1384. [Google Scholar]
  21. Adriko M, Standley CJ, Tinkitina B, Tukahebwa EM, Fenwick A, Fleming FM, Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Stothard JR, Kabatereine NB, , 2014. Evaluation of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) urine-cassette assay as a survey tool for Schistosoma mansoni in different transmission settings within Bugiri District, Uganda. Acta Trop 136: 5057. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0829
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0829
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 16 Oct 2018
  • Accepted : 06 Nov 2018
  • Published online : 02 Jan 2019

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error