1921
Volume 100, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

In this study, we reviewed imported malaria cases observed at the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, between 2005 and 2016, to comprehend their demographic and clinical characteristics. Data on 169 cases were used to analyze demographic information; data on 146 cases were used for the analysis of clinical information. The median patients’ age was 34 years, and 79.3% of them were male. The proportion of non-Japanese patients increased and surpassed that of Japanese patients after 2015. In 82.2% of the cases, the region of acquisition was Africa, and was the dominant species (74.0%) followed by (15.4%). We observed 19 (18.4%, 19/103) severe falciparum malaria cases. Mefloquine was the most commonly used drug for treatment until the early 2010s; atovaquone/proguanil was the most commonly used after its licensure in 2013. Although none of the patients died, four recrudescence episodes after artemether/lumefantrine (A/L) treatment and one relapse episode were observed. Overall, malaria was diagnosed on median day 4 of illness, and, thereon, treatment was initiated without delay. Diagnosis on day 5 or later was significantly associated with severe disease in Japanese cases (odds ratio = 4.1; 95% CI = 1.2–14.3). We observed a dominance of falciparum malaria, an increase in the number of non-Japanese cases, late treatment failure after A/L treatment, a low relapse rate, and an association between delayed malaria diagnosis and higher disease severity. Pretravel care and early diagnosis are necessary to reduce malaria-related mortality and morbidity in settings such as ours.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0722
2019-01-21
2019-08-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/100/4/tpmd180722.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0722&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. World Health Organization, 2018. World Malaria Report. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. [Google Scholar]
  2. Leder K, Black J, O’Brien D, Greenwood Z, Kain KC, Schwartz E, Brown G, Torresi J, , 2004. Malaria in travelers: a review of the GeoSentinel surveillance network. Clin Infect Dis 39: 11041112. [Google Scholar]
  3. Tatem AJ, Jia P, Ordanovich D, Falkner M, Huang Z, Howes R, Hay SI, Gething PW, Smith DL, , 2017. The geography of imported malaria to non-endemic countries: a meta-analysis of nationally reported statistics. Lancet Infect Dis 17: 98107. [Google Scholar]
  4. Leder K, 2013. GeoSentinel surveillance of illness in returned travelers, 2007–2011. Ann Intern Med 158: 456468. [Google Scholar]
  5. Kano S, , 1994. A case of accidental transmission of Plasmodium falciparum through platelet transfusion. Nippon Nettai Igakkai Zasshi 22: 193198. [Google Scholar]
  6. Miura T, Kimura M, Koibuchi T, Endo T, Nakamura H, Odawara T, Wataya Y, Nakamura T, Iwamoto A, , 2005. Clinical characteristics of imported malaria in Japan: analysis at a referral hospital. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73: 599603. [Google Scholar]
  7. Kimura M, Suzaki A, Matsumoto Y, Nakajima K, Wataya Y, Ohtomo H, , 2003. Epidemiological and clinical aspects of malaria in Japan. J Travel Med 10: 122127. [Google Scholar]
  8. Kano S, Kimura M, , 2004. Trends in malaria cases in Japan. Acta Trop 89: 271278. [Google Scholar]
  9. National Institute of Infectious Diseases. National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases Annual Surveillance Data (Notifiable Diseases). Available at: https://www.niid.go.jp/niid/en/survei/2085-idwr/ydata/6058-report-jea2014-20.html. Accessed July 5, 2018. [Google Scholar]
  10. Wilder-Smith A, Khairullah NS, Song JH, Chen CY, Torresi J, , 2004. Travel health knowledge, attitudes and practices among Australasian travelers. J Travel Med 11: 915. [Google Scholar]
  11. Van Herck K, 2004. Knowledge, attitudes and practices in travel-related infectious diseases: the European airport survey. J Travel Med 11: 38. [Google Scholar]
  12. Kanayama A, Arima Y, Matsui T, Kaku K, Kinoshita H, Oishi K, , 2017. Epidemiology of imported malaria cases in Japan, 2006–2014: a sentinel traveler surveillance approach. Am J Trop Med Hyg 97: 15321539. [Google Scholar]
  13. Research Group on Chemotherapy of Tropical Diseases, Japan. Drugs Stocked for Research Purposes. Available at: https://www.nettai.org/. Accessed July 5, 2018.
  14. International Society of Travel Medicine. GeoSentinel. Available at: http://www.istm.org/geosentinel. Accessed July 5, 2018. [Google Scholar]
  15. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. Standard Country or Area Codes for Statistical Use (M49). Available at: https://unstats.un.org/unsd/methodology/m49/. Accessed July 5, 2018. [Google Scholar]
  16. World Health Organization. Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria. 3rd edition. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. [Google Scholar]
  17. National Institute of Infectious Diseases. IDWR Surveillance Data Table. Available at: https://www.niid.go.jp/niid/en/survaillance-data-table-english.html. Accessed July 5, 2018. [Google Scholar]
  18. Tokyo Metropolitan Infectious Disease Surveillance Center. Tokyo Infectious Diseases Weekly Report. Available at: http://idsc.tokyo-eiken.go.jp/epid_en/. Accessed July 5, 2018.
  19. Nakamura-Uchiyama F, 2018. Retrospective observational study of the use of artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of malaria in Japan. Travel Med Infect Dis 22: 4045. [Google Scholar]
  20. Bhatia R, Rastogi RM, Ortega L, , 2013. Malaria successes and challenges in Asia. J Vector Borne Dis 50: 239247. [Google Scholar]
  21. Broderick C, Nadjm B, Smith V, Blaze M, Checkley A, Chiodini PL, Whitty CJ, , 2015. Clinical, geographical, and temporal risk factors associated with presentation and outcome of vivax malaria imported into the United Kingdom over 27 years: observational study. BMJ 350: h1703. [Google Scholar]
  22. Japan Tourism Agency Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. Inbound and Outbound Travel Trends. Available at: http://www.mlit.go.jp/common/001169453.pdf. Accessed July 5, 2018. [Google Scholar]
  23. Immigration Bureau of Japan. Statistics. Available at: http://www.immi-moj.go.jp/toukei/. Accessed July 5, 2018.
  24. Checkley AM, Smith A, Smith V, Blaze M, Bradley D, Chiodini PL, Whitty CJM, , 2012. Risk factors for mortality from imported falciparum malaria in the United Kingdom over 20 years: an observational study. BMJ 344: e2116. [Google Scholar]
  25. Marks ME, Armstrong M, Suvari MM, Batson S, Whitty CJ, Chiodini PL, Bellinghan G, Doherty JF, , 2013. Severe imported falciparum malaria among adults requiring intensive care: a retrospective study at the hospital for tropical diseases, London. BMC Infect Dis 13: 118. [Google Scholar]
  26. Kain KC, Harrington MA, Tennyson S, Keystone JS, , 1998. Imported malaria: prospective analysis of problems in diagnosis and management. Clin Infect Dis 27: 142149. [Google Scholar]
  27. Sonden K, Wyss K, Jovel I, Vieira da Silva A, Pohanka A, Asghar M, Homann MV, Gustafsson LL, Hellgren U, Färnert A, , 2017. High rate of treatment failures in nonimmune travelers treated with artemether-lumefantrine for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sweden: retrospective comparative analysis of effectiveness and case series. Clin Infect Dis 64: 199206. [Google Scholar]
  28. Shimizu S, Kikuchi T, Koga M, Kato Y, Matsuoka H, Maruyama H, Kimura M, Research Group on Chemotherapy of Tropical Diseases; , 2015. Optimal primaquine use for radical cure of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale malaria in Japanese travelers—A retrospective analysis. Travel Med Infect Dis 13: 235240. [Google Scholar]
  29. Mascarello M, Allegranzi B, Angheben A, Anselmi M, Concia E, Lagana S, Manzoli L, Marocco S, Monteiro G, Bisoffi Z, , 2008. Imported malaria in adults and children: epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 380 consecutive cases observed in Verona, Italy. J Travel Med 15: 229236. [Google Scholar]
  30. Dubos F, Dauriac A, El Mansouf L, Courouble C, Aurel M, Martinot A, , 2010. Imported malaria in children: incidence and risk factors for severity. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 66: 169174. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0722
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0722
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 04 Sep 2018
  • Accepted : 11 Dec 2018
  • Published online : 21 Jan 2019

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error