1921
Volume 100, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Although access to piped drinking water continues to increase globally, information on the prevalence and clonal composition of coliforms found in piped water systems in low-resource settings remains limited. From June to July 2016, we examined isolates in domestic water from the distribution system in Alibag, a small town in India. We analyzed the isolates for drug resistance and genotyped them by multilocus sequence typing. Of 147 water samples, 51 contained coliforms, and 19 (37%) of the 51 were biochemically confirmed to contain . These samples contained 104 isolates—all resistant to ampicillin. Resistance to ceftazidime was observed in 52 (50%) isolates, cefotaxime in 59 (57%), sulfamethoxazole–trimethoprim in 46 (44%), ciprofloxacin in 30 (29%), and gentamicin in two (2%). Thirty-eight (36%) belonged to sequence types recognized as extraintestinal pathogenic (ExPEC); 19 (50%) of these 38 ExPEC belonged to known uropathogenic lineages. This exploratory field research shows the extent to which “improved” drinking water is a potential source of strains capable of causing extraintestinal infections.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0542
2019-03-04
2020-07-12
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/100/5/tpmd180542.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0542&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Holmes AH, Moore LS, Sundsfjord A, Steinbakk M, Regmi S, Karkey A, Guerin PJ, Piddock LJ, 2016. Understanding the mechanisms and drivers of antimicrobial resistance. Lancet 387: 176187.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Berglund B, 2015. Environmental dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and correlation to anthropogenic contamination with antibiotics. Infect Ecol Epidemiol 5: 28564.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Walsh TR, Weeks J, Livermore DM, Toleman MA, 2011. Dissemination of NDM-1 positive bacteria in the New Delhi environment and its implications for human health: an environmental point prevalence study. Lancet Infect Dis 11: 355362.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. WHO/UNICEF, 2016. 2016 Annual Report. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water, Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene (JMP).
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Dindal A, McKernan J, 2012. Tech Brief: E. coli and Total Coliform Detection in Drinking Water. Washington, DC: U.S. EPA. Available at: https://archive.epa.gov/nrmrl/archive-etv/web/pdf/p100eexn.pdf. Accessed October 25, 2017.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Brown JM, Proum S, Sobsey MD, 2008. Escherichia coli in household drinking water and diarrheal disease risk: evidence from Cambodia. Water Sci Technol 58: 757763.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Gomez-Alvarez V, Humrighouse BW, Revetta RP, Santo Domingo JW, 2015. Bacterial composition in a metropolitan drinking water distribution system utilizing different source waters. J Water Health 13: 140151.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Revetta RP, Gomez-Alvarez V, Gerke TL, Santo Domingo JW, Ashbolt NJ, 2016. Changes in bacterial composition of biofilm in a metropolitan drinking water distribution system. J Appl Microbiol 121: 294305.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. World Health Organization, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group, 2015. WHO Estimates of the Global Burden of Foodborne Diseases. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/199350/1/9789241565165%5Feng.pdf?ua=1. Accessed October 25, 2017.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Flores-Mireles AL, Walker JN, Caparon M, Hultgren SJ, 2015. Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options. Nat Rev Microbiol 13: 269284.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Javaloyas M, Garcia-Somoza D, Gudiol F, 2002. Epidemiology and prognosis of bacteremia: a 10-y study in a community hospital. Scand J Infect Dis 34: 436441.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Government of India, 2011. District Census Handbook- Maharashtra. New Dehli, India: Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs. Available at: http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census/dchb/DCHB_A/27/2724_PART_A_DCHB_RAIGARH.pdf. Accessed April 7, 2017.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Gronewold AD, Sobsey MD, McMahan L, 2017. The compartment bag test (CBT) for enumerating fecal indicator bacteria: basis for design and interpretation of results. Sci Total Environ 587–588: 102107.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Versalovic J, Koeuth T, Lupski JR, 1991. Distribution of repetitive DNA sequences in eubacteria and application to fingerprinting of bacterial genomes. Nucleic Acids Res 19: 68236831.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Tartof SY, Solberg OD, Manges AR, Riley LW, 2005. Analysis of a uropathogenic Escherichia coli clonal group by multilocus sequence typing. J Clin Microbiol 43: 58605864.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. CLSI, 2016. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, 26th ed. CLSI supplement M100S. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. StataCorp, 2013. Stata Statistical Software: Release 13. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0542
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0542
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 01 Jul 2018
  • Accepted : 19 Jan 2019
  • Published online : 04 Mar 2019
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error