1921
Volume 100, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

With prequalification of a typhoid conjugate vaccine by the World Health Organization, countries are deciding whether and at what geographic scale to provide the vaccine. Optimal local data to clarify typhoid risk are expensive and often unavailable. To determine whether quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) can be used as a tool to detect typhoidal DNA in the environment and approximate the burden of enteric fever, we tested water samples from urban Dhaka, where enteric fever burden is high, and rural Mirzapur, where enteric fever burden is low and sporadic. Sixty-six percent (38/59) of the water sources of Dhaka were contaminated with typhoidal DNA, in contrast to none of 33 samples of Mirzapur. If these results can be replicated in larger scale in Bangladesh and other enteric fever endemic areas, drinking water testing could become a low-cost approach to determine the presence of typhoidal in the environment that can, in turn, guide informed-design of blood culture-based surveillance and thus assist policy decisions on investing to control typhoid.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0428
2019-01-09
2019-01-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/100/1/tpmd180428.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0428&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Vos T, Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators , 2016. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet 388: 15451602. [Google Scholar]
  2. Saha SK, Darmstadt GL, Yamanaka N, Billal DS, Nasreen T, Islam M, Hamer DH, , 2005. Rapid diagnosis of pneumococcal meningitis: implications for treatment and measuring disease burden. Pediatr Infect Dis J 24: 10931098. [Google Scholar]
  3. World Health Organization, 2018. Typhoid vaccines: WHO position paper, March 2018 –Recommendations. Vaccine 2018: 153172. [Google Scholar]
  4. WHO, 2018. Typhoid vaccine prequalified. Available at: http://www.who.int/medicines/news/2017/WHOprequalifies-breakthrough-typhoid-vaccine/en/. Accessed May 18, 2018.
  5. Beach B, Ferrie J, Saavedra M, Troesken W, , 2016. Typhoid fever, water quality, and human capital formation. J Econ Hist 76: 4175. [Google Scholar]
  6. Sedwick WT, Macnutt JS, , 1910. On the Mills-Reincke phenomenin and Hazen’s theorem concerning the decrease in mortality from diseases other than typhoid fever following the purification of public water supplies. J Infect Dis 7: 489564. [Google Scholar]
  7. Levantesi C, Bonadonna L, Briancesco R, Grohmann E, Toze S, Tandoi V, , 2012. Salmonella in surface and drinking water: occurrence and water-mediated transmission. FRIN 45: 587602. [Google Scholar]
  8. Bhatta DR, Bangtrakulnonth A, Tishyadhigama P, Saroj SD, Bandekar JR, Hendriksen RS, Kapadnis BP, , 2007. Serotyping, PCR, phage-typing and antibiotic sensitivity testing of Salmonella serovars isolated from urban drinking water supply systems of Nepal. Lett Appl Microbiol 44: 588594. [Google Scholar]
  9. Saha SK, 2018. Causes and incidence of community-acquired serious infections among young children in south Asia (ANISA): an observational cohort study. Lancet 392: 145159. [Google Scholar]
  10. WHO, 2017. Global invasive bacterial vaccine preventable disease and rotavirus surveillance network bulletin. Available at: https://us13.campaign-archive.com/?u=920b793663d2f2d5f22813b38&id=70d8b1b8e1&e=c6286c7b11. Accessed May 18, 2018.
  11. Karkey A, 2016. The ecological dynamics of fecal contamination and Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A in municipal Kathmandu drinking water. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10: e000434618. [Google Scholar]
  12. Nga TVT, 2010. The sensitivity of real-time PCR amplification targeting invasive Salmonella serovars in biological specimens. BMC Infect Dis 10: 125. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0428
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0428
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 19 May 2018
  • Accepted : 17 Sep 2018

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error