Volume 99, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Melioidosis has a high case fatality rate and is more common in patients with chronic kidney disease. Some authors recommended trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) prophylaxis for all hemodialysis (HD) patients during the wet season in melioidosis-endemic regions. Historical data were reviewed to determine if TMP/SMX prophylaxis was warranted in the HD population of Far North Queensland, Australia. Between 1997 and 2017, there were 242 culture-confirmed cases of melioidosis in the region, three (1.2%) occurred in HD patients; all survived without intensive care support. During the study period, there were 843 HD patients in the region with 3,024 cumulative patient years of risk. Even assuming 100% efficacy, it would have been necessary to prescribe TMP/SMX for 1,008 patient years to prevent one case of melioidosis. Given the significant additional cost and potentially life-threatening side effects of TMP/SMX therapy, clinicians should review the local epidemiology of melioidosis before the implementation of universal TMP/SMX prophylaxis in their HD population.


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  • Received : 18 May 2018
  • Accepted : 12 Jun 2018
  • Published online : 16 Jul 2018

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