Volume 99, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Vietnam has a high burden of tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB, but drug resistance patterns and TB transmission dynamics among TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfected patients are not well described. We characterized 200 isolates from TB/HIV coinfected patients diagnosed at the main TB referral hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) for first-line drugs, spoligotyping, and 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU-24) analysis was performed on all isolates. The 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit clusters and MDR isolates were subjected to whole genome sequencing (WGS). Most of the TB/HIV coinfected patients were young (162/174; 93.1% aged < 45 years) males (173; 86.5% male). Beijing (98; 49.0%) and Indo-Oceanic (70; 35.0%) lineage strains were most common. Phenotypic drug resistance was detected in 84 (42.0%) isolates, of which 17 (8.5%) were MDR; three additional MDR strains were identified on WGS. Strain clustering was reduced from 84.0% with spoligotyping to 20.0% with MIRU-24 typing and to 13.5% with WGS. Whole genome sequencing identified five additional clusters, or members of clusters, not recognized by MIRU-24. In total, 13 small (two to three member) WGS clusters were identified, with less clustering among drug susceptible (2/27; 7.4%) than among drug-resistant strains (25/27; 92.6%). On phylogenetic analysis, strains from TB/HIV coinfected patients were interspersed among strains from the general community; no major clusters indicating transmission among people living with HIV were detected. Tuberculosis/HIV coinfection in Vietnam was associated with high rates of drug resistance and limited genomic evidence of ongoing transmission among HIV-infected patients.


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  • Received : 04 Mar 2018
  • Accepted : 20 Jun 2018
  • Published online : 29 Oct 2018

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