1921
Volume 99, Issue 3_Suppl
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Past research has focused on typhoid fever surveillance with little attention to implementation methods or effectiveness of control interventions. This study purposefully sampled key informants working in public health in Chile, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Thailand, Vietnam, South Africa, and Nigeria to 1) scope typhoid-relevant interventions implemented between 1990 and 2015 and 2) explore contextual factors perceived to be associated with their implementation, based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). We used a mixed methods design and collected quantitative data (CFIR questionnaire) and qualitative data (interviews with 34 public health experts). Interview data were analyzed using a deductive qualitative content analysis and summary descriptive statistics are provided for the CFIR data. Despite relatively few typhoid-specific interventions reportedly implemented in these countries, interventions for diarrheal disease control and regulations for food safety and food handlers were common. Most countries implemented agricultural and sewage treatment practices, yet few addressed the control of antibiotic medication. Several contextual factors were perceived to have influenced the implementation of typhoid interventions, either as enablers (e.g., economic development) or barriers (e.g., limited resources and habitual behaviors). Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research factors rated as important in the implementation of typhoid interventions were remarkably consistent across countries. The findings provide a snapshot of typhoid-relevant interventions implemented over 25 years and highlight factors associated with implementation success from the perspective of a sample of key informants. These findings can inform systematic investigations of the implementation of typhoid control interventions and contribute to a better understanding of the direct effects of implementation efforts.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0110
2018-09-06
2018-12-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/99/3_Suppl/tpmd180110.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0110&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, 2017. Global Burden of Disease. Global Burden of Disease Results Tool. GHDx. Available at: http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool. Accessed June 20, 2017.
  2. Als D, Radhakrishnan A, Arora P, Gaffey MF, Campisi S, Velummailum R, Zareef F, Bhutta ZA, , 2018. Global trends in typhoidal salmonellosis: a systematic review. Am J Trop Med Hyg 99 (Suppl 3): 1019. [Google Scholar]
  3. Proctor E, Silmere H, Raghavan R, Hovmand P, Aarons G, Bunger A, Griffey R, Hensley M, , 2011. Outcomes for implementation research: conceptual distinctions, measurement challenges, and research agenda. Adm Policy Ment Health 38: 6576. [Google Scholar]
  4. Barwick M, Barac R, Zlotkin S, , 2015. Evaluation of Effective Implementation of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Ethiopia and Mali Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Toronto, Canada: Hospital for Sick Children. Available at: http://www.can-mnch.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/EBF-Research-Report-FINAL-July-29-2015.pdf. Accessed March 6, 2016.
  5. De Jongh T, Gurol‐Urganci I, Allen E, Jiayue Zhu N, Atun R, , 2016. Barriers and enablers to integrating maternal and child health services to antenatal care in low and middle income countries. BJOG 123: 549557. [Google Scholar]
  6. Ladner J, Besson MH, Audureau E, Rodrigues M, Saba J, , 2016. Experiences and lessons learned from 29 HPV vaccination programs implemented in 19 low and middle-income countries, 2009–2014. BMC Health Serv Res 16: 575. [Google Scholar]
  7. Puchalski Ritchie LM, 2016. The impact of a knowledge translation intervention employing educational outreach and a point-of-care reminder tool vs standard lay health worker training on tuberculosis treatment completion rates: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial. Trials 17: 439. [Google Scholar]
  8. Orem NJ, Wavamunno JB, Bakeera SK, Criel B, , 2012. Do guidelines influence the implementation of health programs?—Uganda’s experience. Implement Sci 7: 98. [Google Scholar]
  9. Damschroder LJ, Aron DC, Keith RE, Kirsh SR, Alexander JA, Lowery JC, , 2009. Fostering implementation of health services research findings into practice: a consolidated framework for advancing implementation science. Implement Sci 4: 50. [Google Scholar]
  10. Tabak RG, Khoong EC, Chambers D, Brownson RC, , 2012. Bridging research and practice: models for dissemination and implementation research. Am J Prev Med 43: 337350. [Google Scholar]
  11. Marco C, Delgado I, Vargas C, Munñoz X, Bhutta ZA, Ferreccio C, , 2018. Typhoid fever in Chile 1969–2012: analysis of an epidemic and its control. Am J Trop Med Hyg 99 (Suppl 3): 2633. [Google Scholar]
  12. Akinyemi KO, Oyefolu AOB, Mutiu WB, Iwalokun BA, Ayeni ES, Ajose SO, Obaro SK, , 2018. Typhoid fever: tracking the trend in Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 99 (Suppl 3): 4147. [Google Scholar]
  13. Keddy KH, Smith AM, Sooka A, Tau NP, Ngomane HMP, Radhakrishnan A, Als D, Benson FG, , 2018. The burden of typhoid fever in South Africa: the potential impact of selected interventions. Am J Trop Med Hyg 99 (Suppl 3): 5563. [Google Scholar]
  14. Das JK, Hasan R, Zafar A, Ahmed I, Ikram A, Nizamuddin S, Fatima S, Akbar N, Sultan F, Bhutta ZA, , 2018. Trends, associations and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella typhi and paratyphi in Pakistan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 99 (Suppl 3): 4854. [Google Scholar]
  15. Balaji V, Kapil A, Shastri J, Pragasam AK, Gole G, Choudhari S, Kang G, John J, , 2018. Longitudinal typhoid fever trends in India from 2000 to 2015. Am J Trop Med Hyg 99 (Suppl 3): 3440. [Google Scholar]
  16. Saha S, Saha S, Das RC, Faruque ASG, Salam MA, Islam M, Saha SK, , 2018. Enteric fever and related contextual factors in Bangladesh. Am J Trop Med Hyg 99 (Suppl 3): 2025. [Google Scholar]
  17. Nga TVT, Duy PT, Lan NPH, Chau NVV, Baker S, , 2018. The control of typhoid fever in Vietnam. Am J Trop Med Hyg 99 (Suppl 3): 7278. [Google Scholar]
  18. Techasaensiri C, Radhakrishnan A, Als D, Thisyakorn U, , 2018. Typhoidal Salmonella trends in Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 99 (Suppl 3): 6471. [Google Scholar]
  19. Green C, Duan N, Gibbons R, Hoagwood K, Palinkas L, Wisdom J, , 2015. Approaches to mixed methods dissemination and implementation research: methods, strengths, caveats, and opportunities. Adm Policy Ment Health 42: 508523. [Google Scholar]
  20. Greene J, Caracelli V, Graham W, , 1989. Toward a conceptual framework for mixed-method evaluation designs. Edu Eval Policy Anal 11: 255274. [Google Scholar]
  21. Barwick M, Barac R, Damschroder L, , (In press). Factors associated with effective implementation: research and practical implications. Mildon R, Albers B, Shlonsky A, eds. The Science of Implementation.
  22. Barwick M, Barac R, Kimber M, Akrong L, Johnson SN, Cunningham CE, Bennett K, Ashbourne G, Godden T, , 2018. Advancing Implementation Frameworks with a Mixed Methods Multi-Case Study in Child Behavioral Health (manuscript submitted for publication).
  23. Vaismoradi M, Turunen H, Bondas T, , 2013. Content analysis and thematic analysis: implications for conducting a qualitative descriptive study. Nurs Health Sci 15: 398405. [Google Scholar]
  24. Nilsen P, , 2015. Making sense of implementation theories, models and frameworks. Implement Sci 10: 53. [Google Scholar]
  25. Damschroder JL, Lowery JC, , 2013. Evaluation of a large-scale weight management program using the consolidated framework for implementation research (CFIR). Implement Sci 8: 51. [Google Scholar]
  26. Archibald LK, Reller LB, , 2001. Clinical microbiology in developing countries. Emerg Infect Dis 7: 302305. [Google Scholar]
  27. Bhutta ZA, , 2006. Current concepts in the diagnosis and treatment of typhoid fever. BMJ 333: 7882. [Google Scholar]
  28. Nsutebu EF, Ndumbe PM, Koualla S, , 2002. The increase in occurrence of typhoid fever in Cameroon: overdiagnosis due to misuse of the Widal test? Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96: 6467. [Google Scholar]
  29. Proctor EK, Landsverk J, Aarons G, Chambers D, Glisson C, Mittman B, , 2009. Implementation research in mental health services: an emerging science with conceptual, methodological, and training challenges. Adm Policy Ment Health 36: 2434. [Google Scholar]
  30. Rosen A, Proctor EK, , 1981. Distinctions between treatment outcomes and their implications for treatment evaluation. J Consult Clin Psychol 49: 418425. [Google Scholar]
  31. Wain J, Kidgell C, , 2004. The emergence of multidrug resistance to antimicrobial agents for the treatment of typhoid fever. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98: 423430. [Google Scholar]
  32. Varsi C, Ekstedt M, Gammon D, Ruland CM, , 2015. Using the consolidated framework for implementation research to identify barriers and facilitators for the implementation of an internet-based patient-provider communication service in five settings: a qualitative study. J Med Internet Res 17: e262. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0110
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0110
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplemental Appendix

  • Received : 06 Feb 2018
  • Accepted : 05 May 2018

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error