1921
Volume 99, Issue 3_Suppl
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

This article is the introduction to a 12-paper supplement on global trends in typhoid fever. The Tackling Typhoid (T2) project was initiated in 2015 to synthesize the existing body of literature on typhoidal and study national and regional typhoid fever trends. In addition to a global systematic review, eight case studies were undertaken to examine typhoid and paratyphoid fever trends in endemic countries alongside changes in relevant contextual factors. Incidence variations exist both within and between regions with large subnational differences as well, suggesting that public health changes impacting typhoid and paratyphoid fevers in one setting may not have similar impacts in another. This supplement also brings to light the lack of national typhoid fever surveillance systems, inconsistencies in diagnostics, and the lack of typhoid fever associated morbidity and mortality data in many countries, making it difficult to accurately quantify and track burden of disease. To better understand typhoid fever there is a need for more high-quality data from resource-poor settings. The implementation of typhoid surveillance systems alongside the transition to blood-culture confirmation of cases, where possible, would aid in the improvement of data quality in low-income settings. The following supplement includes the results of our global systematic review, eight-country case study articles, a qualitative article informed by semistructured interviews, and a conclusion article on potential ways forward for typhoid control.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0032
2018-09-06
2018-10-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/99/3_Suppl/tpmd180032.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0032&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Buckle GC, Walker CL, Black RE, , 2012. Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever: systematic review to estimate global morbidity and mortality for 2010. J Glob Health 2: 010401.
  2. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Facts About Typhoid Fever and Paratyphoid Fever. Available at: https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/typhoid-and-paratyphoid-fever/facts. Accessed May 10, 2017.
  3. Global Burden of Disease, 2018. Global Burden of Disease Results Tool. GBD Results Tool | GHDx. Available at: http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool. Accessed May 10, 2017.
  4. Mogasale V, Maskery B, Ochiai RL, Lee JS, Mogasale VV, Ramani E, Kim YE, Park JK, Wierzba TF, , 2014. Burden of typhoid fever in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic, literature-based update with risk-factor adjustment. Lancet Glob Health 2: e570e580.
  5. Crump JA, Luby SP, Mintz ED, , 2004. The global burden of typhoid fever. Bull World Health Organ 82: 346353.
  6. Ministry of Health Thailand (MoH), Bureau of Epidemiology, Department of Disease Control, 2018. Typhoid Surveillance. Available at: http://www.boe.moph.go.th/boedb/surdata/disease.php?ds=08. Accessed March 1, 2018.
  7. Ministry of Health Thailand (MoH), Bureau of Epidemiology, Department of Disease Control, 2018. Paratyphoid Surveillance. Available at: http://www.boe.moph.go.th/boedb/surdata/disease.php?ds=09. Accessed March 1, 2018.
  8. One World—Nations Online, 2009. Political Map of Thailand. Available at: http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/thailand-region-map.htm. Accessed March 1, 2018.
  9. Date KA, Newton AE, Medalla F, Blackstock A, Richardson L, McCullough A, Mintz ED, Mahon BE, , 2016. Changing patterns in enteric fever incidence and increasing antibiotic resistance of enteric fever isolates in the United States, 2008–2012. Clin Infect Dis 63: 322329.
  10. Center for Disease Control, 2014. Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet): FoodNet Surveillance Report for 2014 (Final Report). Atlanta, Georgia: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC.
  11. Ochiai RL, Domi Typhoid Study Group , 2008. A study of typhoid fever in five Asian countries: disease burden and implications for controls. Bull World Health Organ 86: 260268.
  12. Lin FY, Vo AH, Phan VB, Nguyen TT, Bryla D, Tran CT, Ha BK, Dang DT, Robbins JB, , 2000. The epidemiology of typhoid fever in the Dong Thap Province, Mekong Delta region of Vietnam. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62: 644648.
  13. Naheed A, Ram PK, Brooks WA, Hossain MA, Parsons MB, Talukder KA, Mintz E, Luby S, Breiman RF, , 2010. Burden of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in a densely populated urban community, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Int J Infect Dis 14 (Suppl 3): e93e99.
  14. Als D, Radhakrishnan A, Arora P, Gaffey MF, Campisi S, Velummailum R, Zareef F, Bhutta ZA, , 2018. Global trends in typhoidal salmonellosis: a systematic review. Am J Trop Med Hyg 99 (Suppl 3): 1019.
  15. Breiman RF, 2012. Population-based incidence of typhoid fever in an urban informal settlement and a rural area in Kenya: implications for typhoid vaccine use in Africa. PLoS One 7: e29119.
  16. Marks F, 2017. Incidence of invasive Salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa: a multicentre population-based surveillance study. Lancet Glob Health 5: e310e323.
  17. Wain J, Hendriksen RS, Mikoleit ML, Keddy KH, Ochiai RL, , 2015. Typhoid fever. Lancet 385: 11361145.
  18. GDB 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators, 2016. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet 388: 14591544.
  19. Bhutta ZA, , 1996. Impact of age and drug resistance on mortality in typhoid fever. Arch Dis Child 75: 214217.
  20. Siddiqui FJ, Haider SR, Bhutta ZA, , 2008. Risk factors for typhoid fever in children in squatter settlements of Karachi: a nested case-control study. J Infect Public Health 1: 113120.
  21. Ochiai RL, 2007. The use of typhoid vaccines in Asia: the DOMI experience. Clin Infect Dis 45 (Suppl 1): S34S38.
  22. Bodhidatt L, Taylor DN, Thisyakorn U, Echeverria P, , 1987. Control of typhoid fever in Bangkok, Thailand, by annual immunization of schoolchildren with parenteral typhoid vaccine. Rev Infect Dis 9: 841845.
  23. Parry CM, Wijedoru L, Arjyal A, Baker S, , 2011. The utility of diagnostic tests for enteric fever in endemic locations. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 9: 711725.
  24. Al-Emran HM, 2016. Validation and identification of invasive Salmonella serotypes in sub-saharan Africa by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Clin Infect Dis 62 (Suppl 1): S80S82.
  25. Mogasale V, Ramani E, Mogasale VV, Park J, , 2016. What proportion of Salmonella typhi cases are detected by blood culture? A systematic literature review. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 15: 32.
  26. Lee A, Mirrett S, Reller LB, Weinstein MP, , 2011. Detection of bloodstream infections in adults: how many blood cultures are needed? J Clin Microbiol 45: 35463548.
  27. Wain J, Hosoglu S, , 2008. The laboratory diagnosis of enteric fever. J Infect Dev Ctries 2: 421425.
  28. World Health Organization (WHO), 2003. Background Document: The Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Typhoid Fever. Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response Vaccines and Biologicals. Available at: http://www.who.int/rpc/TFGuideWHO.pdf. Accessed June 19, 2018.
  29. Wain JDT, Bay PV, Walsh AL, Vinh H, Duong NM, Ho VA, Hien TT, Farrar J, White NJPC, Day NP, , 2008. Specimens and culture media for the laboratory diagnosis of typhoid fever. J Infect Dev Ctries 2: 469474.
  30. Harish BN, Menezes GA, , 2011. Antimicrobial resistance in typhoidal salmonellae. Indian J Med Microbiol 29: 223229.
  31. World Health Organization (WHO), 2011. Guidelines for the Management of Typhoid Fever. Available at: http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s20994en/s20994en.pdf. Accessed May 10, 2017.
  32. Bhan MK, Bahl R, Bhatnagar S, , 2005. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Lancet 366: 749762.
  33. Capoor MR, Nair D, Posti J, Singhal S, Deb M, Aggarwal P, Pillai P, , 2009. Minimum inhibitory concentration of carbapenems and tigecycline against Salmonella spp. J Med Microbiol 58: 337341.
  34. Shrestha KL, Pant ND, Bhandari R, Khatri S, Shrestha B, Lekhak B, , 2016. Re-emergence of the susceptibility of the Salmonella spp. isolated from blood samples to conventional first line antibiotics. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 5: 22.
  35. World Health Organization (WHO), 2017. Typhoid Fever 2016. Available at: http://www.who.int/ith/vaccines/typhoidfever/en/. Accessed May 10, 2017.
  36. Jin C, 2017. Efficacy and immunogenicity of a Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in the prevention of typhoid fever using a controlled human infection model of Salmonella Typhi: a randomised controlled, phase 2b trial. Lancet 390: 24722480.
  37. Levine MM, Ferreccio C, Cryz S, Ortiz E, , 1990. Comparison of enteric-coated capsules and liquid formulation of Ty21a typhoid vaccine in randomised controlled field trial. Lancet 336: 891894.
  38. Acharya IL, 1987. Prevention of typhoid fever in Nepal with the VI capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi. N Engl J Med 317: 11011104.
  39. Yang HH, 2001. Efficacy trial of Vi polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever in south-western China. Bull World Health Organ 79: 625631.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0032
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0032
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 15 Jan 2018
  • Accepted : 08 Mar 2018

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error