Volume 99, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



We analyzed data from a cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted among 20 schools in Rajshahi, Bangladesh, to explore the role of social influence on handwashing with soap (HWWS) in a primary school setting. Using data collected through covert video cameras outside of school latrines, we used robust Poisson regression analysis to assess the impact of social influence—defined as the presence of another person near the handwashing location—on HWWS after a toileting event. In adjusted analyses, we found a 30% increase in HWWS when someone was present, as compared with when a child was alone (Prevalence ratio 1.30; 95% confidence interval: 1.14–1.47, < 0.001). The highest prevalence of HWWS was found when both child(ren) and adult(s) were present or when just children were present (64%). Our study supports the conclusion that the presence of another individual after a toileting event can positively impact HWWS in a primary school setting.


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  • Received : 20 Nov 2017
  • Accepted : 20 Jun 2018
  • Published online : 30 Jul 2018

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