1921
Volume 99, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

This is the first study to document the reduction of turbidity and throughout the processes of full-scale gravity-fed drinking water plants (GFWTPs) and their downstream distribution systems in rural Honduras. The GFWTPs, which in these cases were designed by AguaClara, use standard treatment processes: coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and chlorination. During the dry season, we measured , turbidity, and chlorine residual at five GFWTPs with < 1,000 connections and at three alternative piped-water systems in neighboring communities. Samples were evaluated from the raw water, settled water, filtered water, post-chlorination in the distribution tank, and at a distant-piped household connection. During the dry season, the treated water and household connections serviced by the GFWTPs met World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for (< 1 most probable number [MPN]/100 mL). Alternative plants with the same water sources had comparable or higher and turbidity measurements posttreatment. We examined the performance robustness of two GFWTPs during the transition into the rainy season. The turbidity of the filtered water met WHO recommendations (< 1 nephelometric turbidity units). was not detected in treated water, indicating that the two GFWTPs can consistently remove particulates and from source waters containing varying levels of turbidity. During two sampling events during the rainy season, was detected at the household connection of a GFWTP system with intermittent service and a substandard chlorine residual (geometric mean = 1.0 MPN/100 mL). Strategies to avoid contamination or inactivate in the distribution system are needed to ensure safe drinking water at the points of delivery, especially for systems with intermittent service.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0577
2018-10-03
2018-10-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/99/4/tpmd170577.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0577&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme on Water Supply and Sanitation, 2017. Safely Managed Drinking Water. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Available at: https://www.wssinfo.org/fileadmin/user_upload/resources/JMP-SMDW-TR-1-March-2017.pdf. Accessed March 7, 2017.
  2. Bain R, Cronk R, Wright J, Yang H, Slaymaker T, Bartram J, , 2014. Fecal contamination of drinking-water in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med 11: e1001644.
  3. Heitzinger K, Rocha CA, Quick RE, Montano SM, Tilley DH, Mock CN, Carrasco AJ, Cabrera RM, Hawes SE, , 2015. “Improved” but not necessarily safe: an assessment of fecal contamination of household drinking water in rural Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg 93: 501508.
  4. Baum R, Kayser G, Stauber C, Sobsey M, , 2014. Assessing the microbial quality of improved drinking water sources: results from the Dominican Republic. Am J Trop Med Hyg 90: 121123.
  5. Ashbolt NJ, , 2004. Microbial contamination of drinking water and disease outcomes in developing regions. Toxicology 198: 229238.
  6. Betancourt WQ, Rose JB, , 2004. Drinking water treatment processes for removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Vet Parasitol 126: 219234.
  7. Geldreich EE, , 1996. Microbial Quality of Water Supply in Distribution Systems. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press LLC.
  8. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme on Water Supply and Sanitation, 2013. Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water 2013 Update. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 1–40. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/81245/1/9789241505390_eng.pdf?ua=1. Accessed October 1, 2004.
  9. Solo-Gabriele HM, LeRoy Ager A, Jr. Fitzgerald Lindo J, Dubón JM, Neumeister SM, Baum MK, Palmer CJ, , 1998. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water supplies of San Pedro Sula, Honduras. Rev Panam Salud Publica 4: 398400.
  10. Fischer Walker CL, Perin J, Aryee MJ, Boschi-Pinto C, Black RE, , 2012. Diarrhea incidence in low- and middle-income countries in 1990 and 2010: a systematic review. BMC Public Health 12: 220.
  11. Solórzano Girón JO, Molina IB, Turcios-Ruiz RM, Quiroz Mejia CE, Amendola LM, de Oliveira LH, Andrus JK, Stupp PW, Bresee JS, Glass RI, , 2006. Burden of diarrhea among children in Honduras, 2000–2004: estimates of the role of rotavirus. Rev Panam Salud Publica 20: 377384.
  12. Garland C, Weber-Shirk M, Lion LW, , 2016. Influence of variable inlet jet velocity on failure modes of a floc blanket in a water treatment process train. Environ Eng Sci 33: 7987.
  13. Adelman MJ, Weber-Shirk ML, Will JC, Cordero AN, Maher WJ, Lion LW, , 2013. Novel fluidic control system for stacked rapid sand filters. J Environ Eng 139: 939946.
  14. República de Honduras Ministerio de Salud, 1995. Norma Tecnica Nacional Para la Calidad Del Agua Potable. Available at: http://www.ersaps.hn/documentos/normativa/Norma Tecnica calidad agua.pdf. Accessed February 26, 2018.
  15. Stauber C, Miller C, Cantrell B, Kroell K, , 2014. Evaluation of the compartment bag test for the detection of Escherichia coli in water. J Microbiol Methods 99: 6670.
  16. AquaGenX, LLC, 2017. Compartment Bag Test (CBT) for E. coli Instructions for Use: Drinking Water. Raleigh, NC: AquaGenX, LLC. Available at: https://www.aquagenx.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/-v6-CBT-Ecoli-Instructions-_DrinkingWater_20170920.pdf. Accessed March 20, 2018.
  17. Wang A, McMahan L, Rutstein S, Stauber C, Reyes J, Sobsey MD, , 2017. Household microbial water quality testing in a peruvian demographic and health survey: evaluation of the compartment bag test for Escherichia coli. Am J Trop Med Hyg 96: 970975.
  18. Kostyla C, Bain R, Cronk R, Bartram J, , 2015. Seasonal variation of fecal contamination in drinking water sources in developing countries: a systematic review. Sci Total Environ 514: 333343.
  19. Kumpel E, Nelson KL, , 2013. Comparing microbial water quality in an intermittent and continuous piped water supply. Water Res 47: 51765188.
  20. Kumpel E, Nelson KL, , 2016. Intermittent water supply: prevalence, practice, and microbial water quality. Environ Sci Technol 50: 542553.
  21. Kumpel E, Nelson KL, , 2014. Mechanisms affecting water quality in an intermittent piped water supply. Environ Sci Technol 48: 27662775.
  22. Erickson JJ, Smith CD, Goodridge A, Nelson KL, , 2017. Water quality effects of intermittent water supply in Arraiján, Panama. Water Res 114: 338350.
  23. World Health Organization, 2011. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, 4th edition. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241548151_eng.pdf. Accessed January 25, 2017.
  24. Brooks YM, Collins SM, Mbullo P, Boateng GO, Young SL, Richardson RE, , 2017. Evaluating human sensory perceptions and the compartment bag test assays as proxies for the presence and concentration of Escherichia coli in drinking water in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 97: 10051008.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0577
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0577
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

Supplemental information

  • Received : 19 Jul 2017
  • Accepted : 22 May 2018

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error