Volume 98, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



We conducted a population-based study of tuberculosis (TB) from 2009 to 2015 in an indigenous community of Brazil, the largest in the country, to investigate risk factors associated with recent TB transmission. The clinical isolates of were genotyped by IS-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and spoligotyping analysis. Among 67 isolates typed by RFLP, 69% fell into fifteen clusters, and 91% of TB cases with shared IS-RFLP pattern were diagnosed within 2 years of another case in the cluster. Individual risk factors associated with genetic clustering were domestic overcrowding (odds ratio [OR]: 6.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.50–24.88) and low social class (OR: 3.72; 95% CI: 1.00–13.98). Most reported contacts (76%) were identified within the household of the index TB case, but most of the genetic clustering of occurred outside of household (79%). Expanded contacts investigation and prophylaxis outside of household should be considered as a priority for TB control programs in this population.


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  • Received : 17 Jun 2017
  • Accepted : 23 Oct 2017
  • Published online : 04 Dec 2017

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