1921
Volume 96, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract

Accurately assessing the microbiological safety of water sources is essential to reduce waterborne fecal exposures and track progress toward global targets of safe water access. Sanitary inspections are a recommended tool to assess water safety. We collected 1,684 water samples from 902 shallow tubewells in rural Bangladesh and conducted sanitary surveys to assess whether sanitary risk scores could predict water quality, as measured by . We detected in 41% of tubewells, mostly at low concentrations. Based on sanitary scores, 31% of wells were low risk, 45% medium risk, and 25% high or very high risk. Older wells had higher risk scores. levels were higher in wells where the platform was cracked or broken (Δlog = 0.09, 0.00–0.18) or undercut by erosion (Δlog = 0.13, 0.01–0.24). However, the positive predictive value of these risk factors for presence was low (< 50%). Latrine presence within 10 m was not associated with water quality during the wet season but was associated with less frequent detection during the dry season (relative risk = 0.72, 0.59–0.88). Sanitary scores were not associated with presence or concentration. These findings indicate that observed characteristics of a tubewell, as measured by sanitary inspections in their current form, do not sufficiently characterize microbiological water quality, as measured by . Assessments of local groundwater and geological conditions and improved water quality indicators may reveal more clear relationships. Our findings also suggest that the dominant contamination route for shallow groundwater sources is short-circuiting at the wellhead rather than subsurface transport.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0489
2017-03-08
2018-05-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/96/3/561.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0489&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund Joint Water Supply and Sanitation Monitoring Programme, 2015. Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
  2. Bain R, Cronk R, Wright J, Yang H, Slaymaker T, Bartram J, , 2014. Fecal contamination of drinking-water in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med 11: e1001644.[Crossref]
  3. Onda K, LoBuglio J, Bartram J, , 2012. Global access to safe water: accounting for water quality and the resulting impact on MDG progress. Int J Environ Res Public Health 9: 880894.[Crossref]
  4. United Nations Economic and Social Council, 2016. Report of the Inter-Agency and Expert Group on Sustainable Development Goal Indicators. United Nations Economic and Social Council. Available at: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/statcom/47th-session/documents/2016-2-IAEG-SDGs-E.pdf. Accessed June 6, 2016.
  5. Bain R, Cronk R, Hossain R, Bonjour S, Onda K, Wright J, Yang H, Slaymaker T, Hunter P, Prüss-Ustün A, Bartram J, , 2014. Global assessment of exposure to faecal contamination through drinking water based on a systematic review. Trop Med Int Health 19: 917927.[Crossref]
  6. Shields KF, Bain RE, Cronk R, Wright JA, Bartram J, , 2015. Association of supply type with fecal contamination of source water and household stored drinking water in developing countries: a bivariate meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect 123: 12221231.[Crossref]
  7. Luby SP, Gupta SK, Sheikh MA, Johnston RB, Ram PK, Islam MS, , 2008. Tubewell water quality and predictors of contamination in three flood-prone areas in Bangladesh. J Appl Microbiol 105: 10021008.[Crossref]
  8. Lloyd BJ, Bartram JK, , 1991. Surveillance solutions to microbiological problems in water quality control in developing countries. Water Sci Technol 24: 6175.
  9. Howard G, Pedley S, Barrett M, Nalubega M, Johal K, , 2003. Risk factors contributing to microbiological contamination of shallow groundwater in Kampala, Uganda. Water Res 37: 34213429.[Crossref]
  10. Cronin AA, Breslin N, Gibson J, Pedley S, , 2006. Monitoring source and domestic water quality in parallel with sanitary risk identification in northern Mozambique to prioritise protection interventions. J Water Health 4: 333345.[Crossref]
  11. Godfrey S, Timo F, Smith M, , 2006. Microbiological risk assessment and management of shallow groundwater sources in Lichinga, Mozambique. Water Environ J 20: 194202.
  12. Wright JA, Cronin A, Okotto-Okotto J, Yang H, Pedley S, Gundry SW, , 2012. A spatial analysis of pit latrine density and groundwater source contamination. Environ Monit Assess 185: 42614272.[Crossref]
  13. Islam MS, Siddika A, Khan MN, Goldar MM, Sadique MA, Kabir A, Huq A, Colwell RR, , 2001. Microbiological analysis of tube-well water in a rural area of Bangladesh. Appl Environ Microbiol 67: 33283330.[Crossref]
  14. Luby S, Islam MS, Johnston R, , 2006. Chlorine spot treatment of flooded tube wells, an efficacy trial. J Appl Microbiol 100: 11541158.[Crossref]
  15. Leber J, Rahman MM, Ahmed KM, Mailloux B, Geen A, , 2011. Contrasting influence of geology on E. coli and arsenic in aquifers of Bangladesh. Ground Water 49: 111123.[Crossref]
  16. van Geen A, Ahmed KM, Akita Y, Alam MJ, Culligan PJ, Emch M, Escamilla V, Feighery J, Ferguson AS, Knappett P, Layton AC, Mailloux BJ, McKay LD, Mey JL, Serre ML, Streatfield PK, Wu J, Yunus M, , 2011. Fecal contamination of shallow tubewells in Bangladesh inversely related to arsenic. Environ Sci Technol 45: 11991205.[Crossref]
  17. Ferguson AS, Layton AC, Mailloux BJ, Culligan PJ, Williams DE, Smartt AE, Sayler GS, Feighery J, McKay LD, Knappett PSK, Alexandrova E, Arbit T, Emch M, Escamilla V, Ahmed KM, Alam MJ, Streatfield PK, Yunus M, van Geen A, , 2012. Comparison of fecal indicators with pathogenic bacteria and rotavirus in groundwater. Sci Total Environ 431: 314322.[Crossref]
  18. Ercumen A, Naser AM, Unicomb L, Arnold BF, Colford JM, Jr Luby SP, , 2015. Effects of source-versus household contamination of tubewell water on child diarrhea in rural Bangladesh: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS One 10: e0121907.[Crossref]
  19. Knappett PSK, McKay LD, Layton A, Williams DE, Alam MJ, Huq MR, Mey J, Feighery JE, Culligan PJ, Mailloux BJ, Zhuang J, Escamilla V, Emch M, Perfect E, Sayler GS, Ahmed KM, van Geen A, , 2011. Implications of fecal bacteria input from latrine-polluted ponds for wells in sandy aquifers. Environ Sci Technol 46: 13611370.[Crossref]
  20. Knappett PSK, Escamilla V, Layton A, McKay LD, Emch M, Williams DE, Huq R, Alam J, Farhana L, Mailloux BJ, Ferguson A, Sayler GS, Ahmed KM, van Geen A, , 2011. Impact of population and latrines on fecal contamination of ponds in rural Bangladesh. Sci Total Environ 409: 31743182.[Crossref]
  21. Knappett PSK, McKay LD, Layton A, Williams DE, Alam MJ, Mailloux BJ, Ferguson AS, Culligan PJ, Serre ML, Emch M, Ahmed KM, Sayler GS, van Geen A, , 2012. Unsealed tubewells lead to increased fecal contamination of drinking water. J Water Health 10: 565.[Crossref]
  22. Ferguson AS, Mailloux BJ, Ahmed KM, Geen AV, McKay LD, Culligan PJ, , 2011. Hand-pumps as reservoirs for microbial contamination of well water. J Water Health 9: 708717.[Crossref]
  23. Escamilla V, Knappett PSK, Yunus M, Streatfield PK, Emch M, , 2013. Influence of latrine proximity and type on tubewell water quality and diarrheal disease in Bangladesh. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 103: 299308.[Crossref]
  24. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), 2002. Method 1604: Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli in Water by Membrane Filtration Using a Simultaneous Detection Technique (MI Medium). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
  25. Ahmed KM, Bhattacharya P, Hasan MA, Akhter SH, Alam SMM, Bhuyian MAH, Imam MB, Khan AA, Sracek O, , 2004. Arsenic enrichment in groundwater of the alluvial aquifers in Bangladesh: an overview. Appl Geochem 19: 181200.[Crossref]
  26. McNutt LA, Wu C, Xue X, Hafner JP, , 2003. Estimating the relative risk in cohort studies and clinical trials of common outcomes. Am J Epidemiol 157: 940943.[Crossref]
  27. World Health Organization, 1997. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, 2nd edition Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
  28. Santamaría J, Toranzos GA, , 2003. Enteric pathogens and soil: a short review. Int Microbiol 6: 59.
  29. Verheyen J, Timmen-Wego M, Laudien R, Boussaad I, Sen S, Koc A, Uesbeck A, Mazou F, Pfister H, , 2009. Detection of adenoviruses and rotaviruses in drinking water sources used in rural areas of Benin, west Africa. Appl Environ Microbiol 75: 27982801.[Crossref]
  30. Wright J, Gundry S, Conroy R, , 2004. Household drinking water in developing countries: a systematic review of microbiological contamination between source and point-of-use. Trop Med Int Health 9: 106117.[Crossref]
  31. Pujari PR, Padmakar C, Labhasetwar PK, Mahore P, Ganguly AK, , 2012. Assessment of the impact of on-site sanitation systems on groundwater pollution in two diverse geological settings: a case study from India. Environ Monit Assess 184: 251263.[Crossref]
  32. Levy K, Hubbard AE, Nelson KL, Eisenberg JNS, , 2009. Drivers of water quality variability in northern coastal Ecuador. Environ Sci Technol 43: 17881797.[Crossref]
  33. Gruber JS, Ercumen A, Colford JM, Jr, 2014. Coliform bacteria as indicators of diarrheal risk in household drinking water: systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 9: e107429.[Crossref]
  34. Wu J, Long SC, Das D, Dorner SM, , 2011. Are microbial indicators and pathogens correlated? A statistical analysis of 40 years of research. J Water Health 9: 265278.[Crossref]
  35. Taylor R, Cronin A, Pedley S, Barker J, Atkinson T, , 2004. The implications of groundwater velocity variations on microbial transport and wellhead protection: review of field evidence. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 49: 1726.[Crossref]
  36. Hardina CM, Fujioka RS, , 1991. Soil: the environmental source of Escherichia coli and enterococci in Hawaii's streams. Environ Toxicol Water Qual 6: 185195.[Crossref]
  37. Fujioka R, Sian-Denton C, Borja M, Castro J, Morphew K, , 1998. Soil: the environmental source of Escherichia coli and enterococci in Guam's streams. J Appl Microbiol 85: 83S89S.[Crossref]
  38. Graham JP, Polizzotto ML, , 2013. Pit latrines and their impacts on groundwater quality: a systematic review. Environ Health Perspect 121: 521530. Available at: http://hsrc.himmelfarb.gwu.edu/sphhs_enviro_facpubs/36/. Accessed July 21, 2016.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0489
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0489
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 16 Jun 2016
  • Accepted : 27 Nov 2016

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error