Malaria and tropical diseases were always widespread in Russia. In connection with war, the mass movements of troops and groups of workers, as well as with the extraordinarily hot temperature of recent summers, malarial diseases increased very much even in European Russia, and mass attacks of malaria occurred even in the north as far as Archangel. Besides marlaria there are also other protozoan diseases very widely spread in Russia, expecially in the Caucasus and Turkestan. These include Kala Azar, leishmaniosis of the skin, Bouton d'orient, Pappataci and dengue fever, ameobic dysentery, colics caused by Balantidium coli and Lamblia, etc. There is also considerable economic damage caused by various protozoan diseases of animals, such as horse piroplasmosis, trypanosomiases, etc.
The task of the Tropical Institute (opened September 1, 1920) is the study and combating of the above diseases.
Professor E. J. Martsinovsky was appointed director of the institute.