C.S. ButlerU.S. Navy, Naval Medical School, Washington, D.C.

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I may arrange my remarks under several headings as follows: A. Things we know about yaws, B. matters about which we are uncertain, C. some suggestions.

Under A we know that:

  1. 1. Treponema pertenue is morphologically identical with Treponema pallidum.
  2. 2. That the framboesial gumma (i.e., the uncomplicated tissue reaction to T. pertenue) is like that of syphilis.
  3. 3. That the serum of yaws patients is immunologically identical in its reactions with that of syphilis.
  4. 4. That symptomatically yaws is so similar to certain types of syphilis that they are clinically undistinguishable.
  5. 5. That yaws is usually not a venereal disease.
  6. 6. That if differences exist (i.e., if there are separate viruses) that these differences cannot be worked out upon animals other than man.
  7. 7. That yaws is inoculable and contagious and that it is occasionally venereal in origin.
  8. 8. That the older investigations (such as those of Charlouis, made before bacteriology and serology were developed) prove nothing to the modern investigator except that yaws like syphilis is a contagious and inoculable disease and that it is curable by mercury and iodide of potassium.