A Neglected Early Reference to the Malaria Vector in the Philippines

Paul F. Russell International Health Division, The Rockefeller Foundation

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It is now generally agreed that in the Philippine Islands malaria is transmitted by stream-breeding mosquitoes. The work of Walker and Barber (1), Barber et al. (2), Tiedeman (3), Mieldazis (4), Manalang (5), and Holt and Russell (6) leaves little doubt that in the stream-breeding funestus-minimus subgroup of King (7) are found the chief local carriers of the disease. Anopheles maculatus is also occasionally a vector. It, too, is a stream-breeding mosquito. The anophelines from ricefields, swamps, stagnant water, and salt-water fishponds do not carry malaria in the Philippines. The classical picture of a malarial “marsh-dragon” rising from low-lying, miasmal swamps is completely wrong as far as this country is concerned. Here malaria is found only in the attractive foothill country fed by fresh running water from mountain streams; the flat land, high or low, is never malarious; neither are localities with an altitude of more than 2000 feet.

Author Notes

The author is chief of “Malaria Investigations,” in which the Bureau of Science, Manila, and the International Health Division of The Rockefeller Foundation are coöperating.