V. Evaluation of Cross-Immunity against Type 1 Dengue Fever in Human Subjects Convalescent from Subclinical Natural Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection and Vaccinated with 17D Strain Yellow Fever Vaccine
In rural India, since 2014, the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Mission) has ensured construction of more than 100 million toilets and is now focusing on reinforcement of sanitation behaviors. We report a cholera outbreak in a remote village in western India where open defecation was implicated in causation. A water pipeline was damaged in the vicinity of a stream flowing from a site of open defecation. Despite the availability of a toilet facility in the majority of households (75%), open defecation was widely practiced (62.8%). Many reported not washing hands with soap and water before eating (78.5%) and after defecation (61.1%). The study emphasizes the need for focused health behavior studies and evidence-based interventions to reduce the occurrence of cholera outbreaks. This could be the last lap in the path toward achieving Sustainable Development Goal 6, which aims to “ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.”
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Address correspondence to Rajlakshmi Viswanathan, Bacteriology Group, ICMR–National Institute of Virology, Microbial Containment Complex, 130/1, Sus Road, Pune 411021, Maharashtra, India. E-mail: email@example.com
Financial support: This work was supported by institutional intramural funding from the Indian Council of Medical Research–National Institute of Virology, Pune, Maharashtra, India.