Prevalence of Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika Viruses in Febrile Pregnant Women: An Observational Study at a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India

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  • 1 Department of Microbiology, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, India;
  • | 2 Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, India;
  • | 3 Department of Medicine, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, India

Dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Zika virus (ZIKV) are arboviruses that can affect maternal and fetal outcome if acquired during pregnancy. This study was done to estimate the positivity of DENV, CHIKV, and ZIKV in febrile pregnant women attending a tertiary care hospital in north India. Symptomatic pregnant women were tested for these viruses by IgM ELISA and/or by Trioplex real-time polymerase chain reaction. Their symptoms and laboratory parameters were recorded and were followed up till delivery to know their immediate delivery outcome. Of 104 women tested, 50 (48.1%) were positive for viral markers. Of these, evidence of infection by DENV, CHIKV, and both was found in 34 (32.7%), 10 (9.6%), and 6 (5.8%), respectively. ZIKV was not detected in any woman. Maximum DENV positivity occurred in the third trimester of pregnancy and in women residing in urban than rural areas. Chills and rigors, arthralgia, retro-orbital pain, anemia, and vaginal bleeding were more commonly associated with DENV positivity. Backache, arthralgia, jaundice, and vaginal bleeding were more common in CHIKV positives but the difference between positives and nonpositives regarding these symptoms was not statistically significant. Dengue infections were associated with more frequent hospitalizations (OR = 8.38, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 3.29–21.30) and mortality (OR = 19.0, 95% CI = 1.01–357.10). Hence, to conclude, in India wherever possible, all symptomatic pregnant women should be screened for DENV, CHIKV, and ZIKV as part of sentinel surveillance for ZIKV.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Vimala Venkatesh, Department of Microbiology, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow 226003, India. E-mail: vimalavenkatesh@gmail.com

Authors’ addresses: Akanksha Gupta, Department of Microbiology, Dr Ram Manohar Lohia Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India, E-mail: doc.akanksha1989@gmail.com. Parul Jain, Vimala Venkatesh, and Amita Jain, Department of Microbiology, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, India, E-mails: parulkgmu@yahoo.com, vimalavenkatesh@gmail.com, and amita602002@yahoo.com. Anjoo Agarwal, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, India, E-mail: anjooa@gmail.com. D. Himanshu Reddy, Department of Medicine, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, India, E-mail: dr.himanshu.reddy@gmail.com.

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