Leptospirosis is endemic in New Caledonia. Clinical diagnosis is often difficult and its evolution can be fatal. Leptospirosis requires specific management before biological confirmation. Modified Faine criteria (Faine Score) have been suggested to diagnose leptospirosis on epidemiological (parts A and B) and biological (part C) criteria. The main objective of our study was to assess the relevance of the epidemiological–clinical modified Faine score, parts A and B (MF A + B), in patients with suspected leptospirosis in New Caledonia. A monocentric case–control study was conducted in suspect patients for whom a Leptospira polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was done within the first 7 days of signs onset at the tertiary hospital from January 1, 2018 to January 4, 2019. Cases and control subjects were matched 1:2 in the gender and age categories. Bivariate, and then multivariable, analyses studied the association between the MF A + B score and a positive Leptospira PCR test, adjusted on the variables retained. In all, 35 cases and 70 control subjects matched for age and gender were analyzed. Multivariable analysis by logistic regression found a significant association between an MF A + B score taken from the categories “possible leptospirosis” (score, 20–25) and “presumed leptospirosis” (score, > 26), and the case or control subject status (P < 0.0001). Model performance was high, with an area under the curve value of 99.27%, 93.55% sensitivity, and 96.36% specificity, which classified subjects correctly in 95.35% of cases. Our study suggests using the MF A + B score to identify possible cases of leptospirosis and initiate antibiotic therapy before biological confirmation in New Caledonia. This score should be evaluated in areas where more differential diagnoses exist and where PCR is not widely available.
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Address correspondence to Arnaud Tarantola, Lyssavirus Epidemiology and Neuropathology Unit & WHO Collaborating Centre for Research on Rabies, Global Health Department, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Docteur Roux, 75724, Paris Cedex 15, France. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org