Intraspecific and Interspecific Phenotypic Differences Confirm the Absence of Cryptic Speciation in Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera, Triatominae)

View More View Less
  • 1 Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu, Distrito de Rubião Junior, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil;
  • | 2 Laboratório de Entomologia em Saúde Pública, Departamento de Epidemiologia, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, Brazil;
  • | 3 Laboratório de Parasitologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil;
  • | 4 Laboratório Nacional e Internacional de Referência em Taxonomia de Triatomíneos, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Pavilhão Rocha Lima, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil;
  • | 5 Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (IICS), Universidad Nacional de Asunción, Campus Universitario, San Lorenzo, Paraguay;
  • | 6 Laboratorio de Biología Molecular de Protozoarios, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela

Triatoma sordida is an endemic Chagas disease vector in South America, distributed in Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Chromosomal, molecular, isoenzimatic, and cuticular hydrocarbon pattern studies indicate cryptic speciation in T. sordida. Recently, T. rosai was described from specimens from Argentina initially characterized as T. sordida. Although several authors assume that the speciation process that supports this differentiation in T. sordida is the result of cryptic speciation, further morphological and/or morphometric studies are necessary to prove the application of this evolutionary event, because the only morphological intraspecific comparison performed in T. sordida is based on geometric morphometry and the only interspecific comparison made is between T. rosai and T. sordida from Brazil that evaluated morphological and morphometric differences. Based on this, morphological analyses of thorax and abdomen using Scanning Electron Microscopy and morphometric analyses of the head, thorax, and abdomen among T. sordida from Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay, as well as T. rosai, were performed to assess whether the evolutionary process responsible for variations is the cryptic speciation phenomenon. Morphological differences in the thorax and female external genitalia, as well as morphometric differences in the head, thorax, abdomen, pronotum, and scutellum structures, were observed. Based on this, the evolutionary process that supports, so far, these divergences observed for T. sordida populations/T. sordida subcomplex is not cryptic speciation. Moreover, we draw attention to the necessity for morphological/morphometric studies to correctly apply the cryptic species/speciation terms in triatomines.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Cleber Galvão, IOC/FIOCRUZ, Av. Brazil 4365, Pavilhão Rocha Lima, sala 505, 21040-360 RJ, Brazil. E-mail: clebergalvao@gmail.com

These authors contributed equally to this work

Financial support: We appreciate the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) (Process number 2017/05015-7, 2018/12039-2, 2018/24116-1, 2019/17581-2), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), PAHO/HDP/HDR/RG/VEN3 223 and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior—Brazil (CAPES)—Finance Code 001 for financial support.

Authors’ addresses: Ariane Cristina Caris Garcia, Luiza Maria Grzyb Delgado, and Isadora de Freitas Bittinelli, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, E-mails: ariane.garcia@outlook.com, lu.grzyb@gmail.com, and isadora_bittinelli@hotmail.com. Jader de Oliveira, Laboratório de Entomologia em Saúde Pública, Departamento de Epidemiologia, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, Brazil, and Laboratório de Parasitologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil, E-mail: jdr.oliveira@hotmail.com. Daniel Cesaretto Cristal and João Aristeu da Rosa, Laboratório de Parasitologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil, E-mails: daniel.cristal@hotmail.com and joaoaristeu@gmail.com. Cleber Galvão, Laboratório Nacional e Internacional de Referência em Taxonomia de Triatomíneos, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, E-mail: clebergalvao@gmail.com. Nilsa Elizabeth Gonzalez Britez, Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (IICS), Universidad Nacional de Asunción, Campus Universitario, San Lorenzo, Paraguay, E-mail: gbritez.nilsa@gmail.com. Hernán José Carrasco, Laboratorio de Biología Molecular de Protozoarios, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas, Venezuela, E-mail: hjcarrasco@yahoo.com. Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, and Laboratório de Parasitologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil, E-mail: kaiochaboli@hotmail.com.

Save