Chagas Disease Vectors of Paraguay: Entomoepidemiological Aspects of Triatoma sordida (Stål, 1859) and Development of an Identification Key for Paraguayan Triatomines Based on Cytogenetics Data

View More View Less
  • 1 Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (IICS), Universidad Nacional de Asunción, Campus Universitario, San Lorenzo, Paraguay;
  • 2 Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu, Rua Dr. Antônio Celso Wagner Zanin, Distrito de Rubião Junior, Botucatu, SP, Brazil;
  • 3 Laboratório de Parasitologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Rodovia Araraquara-Jaú km 1, Araraquara, SP, Brazil;
  • 4 Laboratorio de Biología Molecular de Protozoarios, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas, Venezuela;
  • 5 Laboratório Nacional e Internacional de Referência em Taxonomia de Triatomíneos, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Pavilhão Rocha Lima, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Approximately 150,000 people are living with Chagas disease in Paraguay. Although the country has been since 2008 considered as one of the countries that succeeded in interrupted the vector transmission of Chagas by Triatoma infestans in houses of the eastern region, there are nine other species notified in the country that are potential vectors and also deserve attention from vector control programs. Thus, we carried out an entomoepidemiological study of T. sordida in the eastern and western regions of the country and we developed an identification key for Paraguay's triatomines based on cytogenetic data. Between the years 2003 to 2004, 271 specimens of T. sordida were captured in domestic, peridomestic, and wild ecotopes, with 131 insects caught in the eastern (Alto Paraguay, Boquerón and Pte. Hayes) and 140 in the western region of Paraguay (Guairá and Paraguarí). High rates of peridomicillary infestation were observed for both regions. Besides that, the natural infection of the captured insects was detected by optical microscopy in 12% and 10%, and by PCR in 21% and 20% in the eastern and western regions, respectively. Based on cytogenetic data from nine of ten species notified in Paraguay, an identification key was developed to differentiate all taxa. Thus, given the vectorial importance of T. sordida, we highlight the need for continued attention from Paraguay's vector control programs for this species. Further, we provide a taxonomic key that assists in the correct classification of Paraguayan triatomines.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Cleber Galvão, IOC/FIOCRUZ, Av. Brazil 4365, Pavilhão Rocha Lima, sala 505, 21040-360 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. E-mail: clebergalvao@gmail.com

These authors are co-first authors.

Authors’ addresses: Nilsa Elizabeth Gonzalez Britez, Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (IICS), Universidad Nacional de Asunción, Campus Universitario, San Lorenzo, Paraguay, E-mail: gbritez.nilsa@gmail.com. Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu, Rua Dr. Antônio Celso Wagner Zanin, Distrito de Rubião Junior, Botucatu, SP, Brazil, and Laboratório de Parasitologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Rodovia Araraquara-Jaú km 1, Araraquara, SP, Brazil, E-mail: kaiochaboli@hotmail.com. Ariane Cristina Caris Garcia, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu, Rua Dr. Antônio Celso Wagner Zanin, Distrito de Rubião Junior, Botucatu, SP, Brazil, E-mail: ariane.garcia@outlook.com. Clara Elena Martínez Purroy and Hernán José Carrasco, Laboratorio de Biología Molecular de Protozoarios, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas, Venezuela, E-mails: clara.martinezp@gmail.com and hjcarrasco@yahoo.com. Cleber Galvão, Laboratório Nacional e Internacional de Referência em Taxonomia de Triatomíneos, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Pavilhão Rocha Lima, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, E-mail: clebergalvao@gmail.com.

Financial support: This work was conducted with the financial support of PAHO/HDP/HDR/RG/VEN3 223, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) (Process number 2017/05015-7), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) and by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior—Brasil (CAPES)—Finance Code 001.

Disclosure: The experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed.

Save