Case Report: Visceral Leishmaniasis and Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis: Three Clinical Cases, Three Different Pattern

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  • 1 Hematology Service and Transfusional Unit, University Hospital—Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil;
  • 2 Molecular Biology and Immunology Laboratory, University Hospital—Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil;
  • 3 Health Sciences Post Graduate Program—Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease with more than 30,000 cases annually reported worldwide. In Brazil, about 3,700 cases are annually reported. The VL clinical presentation is variable, from asymptomatic to severe cases with a high risk of death. We reported three cases of VL with clinical sign similarities but distinct development. All cases had bone marrow hemophagocytosis and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) criteria. HLH is a rare condition that may have secondary causes, including infectious and parasitic diseases, like VL. The delayed recognition of the secondary HLH (sHLH) association to VL may cause unfavorable outcomes and death.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Geydson Silveira Cruz, Hospital Universitário de Sergipe—Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Unidade Transfusional, Rua Cláudio Batista, 505 Palestina, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil 49.060-025. E-mail: geydson.cruz@ebserh.gov.br

Authors’ addresses: Geydson Silveira Cruz, Hematology Service and Transfusional Unit, University Hospital—Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil, Molecular Biology and Immunology Laboratory, University Hospital—Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil, and Health Sciences Post Graduate Program—Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil, E-mail: geydson@hotmail.com. Amélia Ribeiro de Jesus and Roque Pacheco Almeida, Molecular Biology and Immunology Laboratory, University Hospital—Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil, and Health Sciences Post Graduate Program—Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil, E-mails: ameliaribeirodejesus@gmail.com and roquepachecoalmeida@gmail.com. Maria Aurélia Porto, Hematology Service and Transfusional Unit, University Hospital—Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil, E-mail: maria.porto281@gmail.com.

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