Zika Virus and the World Health Organization Criteria for Determining Recent Infection Using Plaque Reduction Neutralization Testing

Matthew J. Ward Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana;

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Jackeline Alger Departamento de Laboratorio Clínico, Hospital Escuela Universitario, Tegucigalpa, Honduras;
Instituto de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Parasitología Antonio Vidal (IAV), Tegucigalpa, Honduras;

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Mabel Berrueta Instituto de Efectividad Clínica y Sanitaria (IECS), Buenos Aires, Argentina;

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Harry Bock Región Sanitaria Metropolitana del Distrito Central, Secretaría de Salud de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras;

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Pierre Buekens Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana;

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Maria Luisa Cafferata Instituto de Efectividad Clínica y Sanitaria (IECS), Buenos Aires, Argentina;

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Alvaro Ciganda Instituto de Efectividad Clínica y Sanitaria (IECS), Buenos Aires, Argentina;

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Jorge García Departamento de Laboratorio Clínico, Hospital Escuela Universitario, Tegucigalpa, Honduras;
Instituto de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Parasitología Antonio Vidal (IAV), Tegucigalpa, Honduras;

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Kimberly García Instituto de Investigaciones en Microbiología, Centro de Investigaciones Genéticas (CIG), Escuela de Microbiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras

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Wendy Lopez Departamento de Laboratorio Clínico, Hospital Escuela Universitario, Tegucigalpa, Honduras;

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Ivette Lorenzana Instituto de Investigaciones en Microbiología, Centro de Investigaciones Genéticas (CIG), Escuela de Microbiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras

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Leda Parham Instituto de Investigaciones en Microbiología, Centro de Investigaciones Genéticas (CIG), Escuela de Microbiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras

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Dawn M. Wesson Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana;

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The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic swept across Latin America and the Caribbean, where dengue virus (DENV) is endemic. The antigenic similarities of these closely related flaviviruses left researchers and clinicians with challenges to interpret serological tests. Thirty-six women attending a prenatal clinic in Honduras and with positive DENV IgM enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISAs) were screened with a ZIKV immunoglobulin M ELISA, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for ZIKV and DENV 1–4, and plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs) for ZIKV and DENV-2. Plaque reduction neutralization test results were interpreted using the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria. Using the WHO criteria of a PRNT90 titer ≥ 20 and a 4-fold difference between ZIKV and DENV titers, we determined that 69.4% of samples had a recent ZIKV infection, compared with 5.6% using CDC criteria. The interpretation of ZIKV PRNTs in a DENV-endemic region is highly dependent on the choice of interpretation criteria.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Matthew J. Ward, Department of Tropical Medicine, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Suite 2300, 1440 Canal St. #8317, New Orleans, LA 70112. E-mail: mward11@tulane.edu

Authors’ addresses: Matthew J. Ward, Pierre Buekens, and Dawn M. Wesson, Department of Tropical Medicine, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, E-mails: mward11@tulane.edu, pbuekens@tulane.edu, and wesson@tulane.edu. Jackeline Alger and Jorge García, Departamento de Laboratorio Clínico, Hospital Escuela Universitario, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, and Instituto de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Parasitología Antonio Vidal (IAV), Tegucigalpa, Honduras, E-mails: jackelinealger@gmail.com and jalgar62_84@yahoo.com.ar. Mabel Berrueta, Maria Luisa Cafferata, and Alvaro Ciganda, Instituto de Efectividad Clínica y Sanitaria (IECS), Buenos Aires, Argentina, E-mails: mberrueta@iecs.org.ar, marialuisa.cafferata@gmail.com, and aciganda@gmail.com. Harry Bock, Región Sanitaria Metropolitana del Distrito Central, Secretaría de Salud de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, E-mail: hbockme@hotmail.com. Kimberly García, Ivette Lorenzana, and Leda Parham, Instituto de Investigaciones en Microbiología, Centro de Investigaciones Genéticas (CIG), Escuela de Microbiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, E-mails: kimfa_2010@hotmail.com, ivettelorenzana@yahoo.com, and lparham29@hotmail.com. Wendy Lopez, Departamento de Laboratorio Clínico, Hospital Escuela Universitario, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, E-mail: wlopez36@hotmail.com.

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