• 1.

    Fenner F, 1976. Classification and nomenclature of viruses. Second report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Intervirology 7: 1115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    King AMQ, Adams MJ, Carstens EB, Lefkowitz EJ, 2012. Virus Taxonomy: Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses: Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, CA: Elsevier.

  • 3.

    Calisher CH, 1996. History, classification, and taxonomy of viruses in the family Bunyaviridae. Elliott RM, ed. The Bunyaviridae. New York, NY: Springer Science+Business Media, 1–17.

  • 4.

    Elliott RM, Schmaljohn CS, 2013. Bunyaviridae. Knipe DM, Howley P, eds. Fields Virology. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1244–1282.

  • 5.

    Adams MJ et al. 2017. Changes to taxonomy and the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2017). Arch Virol 162: 25052538.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Murphy FA, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Ghabrial SA, Jarvis AW, Martelli GP, Mayo MA, Summers MD, 1995. Virus taxonomy, 6th report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Arch Virol Suppl 10: 1586.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    van Regenmortel MHV et al. 2000. Virus Taxonomy: Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

  • 8.

    Blitvich BJ, Saiyasombat R, Dorman KS, Garcia-Rejon JE, Farfan-Ale JA, Lorono-Pino MA, 2012. Sequence and phylogenetic data indicate that an Orthobunyavirus recently detected in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico is a novel reassortant of Potosi and Cache Valley viruses. Arch Virol 157: 11991204.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Groseth A, Vine V, Weisend C, Guevara C, Watts D, Russell B, Tesh RB, Ebihara H, 2017. Maguari virus associated with human disease. Emerg Infect Dis 23: 13251331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Liu R, Zhang G, Yang Y, Dang R, Zhao T, 2014. Genome sequence of Abbey Lake virus, a novel Orthobunyavirus isolated from China. Genome Announc 2: e00433-14.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Fauquet C, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, Desselberger U, Ball LA, 2005. Virus Taxonomy: Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. London, United Kingdom: Elsevier/Academic Press.

  • 12.

    Shchetinin AM, Lvov DK, Alkhovsky SV, Shchelkanov MY, Aristova VA, Morozova TN, Gitelman AK, Deryabin PG, Botikov AG, 2014. Complete genome analysis of the Batai virus (BATV) and the new Anadyr virus (ANADV) of the Bunyamwera group (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) isolated in Russia. Vopr Virusol 59: 1622.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Gerrard SR, Li L, Barrett AD, Nichol ST, 2004. Ngari virus is a Bunyamwera virus reassortant that can be associated with large outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in Africa. J Virol 78: 89228926.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Briese T, Bird B, Kapoor V, Nichol ST, Lipkin WI, 2006. Batai and Ngari viruses: M segment reassortment and association with severe febrile disease outbreaks in east Africa. J Virol 80: 56275630.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Briese T, Calisher CH, Higgs S, 2013. Viruses of the family Bunyaviridae: are all available isolates reassortants? Virology 446: 207216.

  • 16.

    Lindsey HS, Klimas RA, Obijeski JF, 1977. La Crosse virus soluble cell culture antigen. J Clin Microbiol 6: 618626.

  • 17.

    Gentsch JR, Rozhon EJ, Klimas RA, El Said LH, Shope RE, Bishop DH, 1980. Evidence from recombinant bunyavirus studies that the M RNA gene products elicit neutralizing antibodies. Virology 102: 190204.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Gonzalez-Scarano F, Shope RE, Calisher CE, Nathanson N, 1982. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against the G1 and N proteins of LaCrosse and Tahyna, two California serogroup bunyaviruses. Virology 120: 4253.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Edwards JF, 1994. Cache Valley virus. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 10: 515524.

  • 20.

    Calisher CH, Francy DB, Smith GC, Muth DJ, Lazuick JS, Karabatsos N, Jakob WL, McLean RG, 1986. Distribution of Bunyamwera serogroup viruses in North America, 1956–1984. Am J Trop Med Hyg 35: 429443.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Hubalek Z, 2008. Mosquito-borne viruses in Europe. Parasitol Res 103 (Suppl 1): S29S43.

  • 22.

    Blackmore CG, Grimstad PR, 1998. Cache Valley and Potosi viruses (Bunyaviridae) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): experimental infections and antibody prevalence in natural populations. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59: 704709.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Gonzalez JP, Georges AJ, 1988. Bunyaviral fevers: Bunyamwera, Ilesha, Germiston, Bwamba and Tataguine. Monath TP, ed. The Arboviruses: Epidemiology and Ecology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 87–98.

  • 24.

    Smithburn KC, Haddow AJ, Mahaffy AF, 1946. A neurotropic virus isolated from Aedes mosquitoes caught in the Semliki forest. Am J Trop Med Hyg 26: 189208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Tauro LB, Batallan GP, Rivarola ME, Visintin A, Berron CI, Sousa EC Jr., Diaz LA, Almiron WR, Nunes MR, Contigiani MS, 2015. Detection of Orthobunyavirus in mosquitoes collected in Argentina. Med Vet Entomol 29: 338343.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Tauro LB, Rivarola ME, Lucca E, Marino B, Mazzini R, Cardoso JF, Barrandeguy ME, Teixeira Nunes MR, Contigiani MS, 2015. First isolation of Bunyamwera virus (Bunyaviridae family) from horses with neurological disease and an abortion in Argentina. Vet J 206: 111114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Rogers MB et al. 2017. Characterization of five unclassified orthobunyaviruses (Bunyaviridae) from Africa and the Americas. J Gen Virol 98: 22582266.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). International Catalogue of Arboviruses Including Certain Other Viruses of Vertebrates. Available at: https://wwwn.cdc.gov/arbocat. Accessed January 10, 2018.

  • 29.

    Schweitzer BK, Chapman NM, Iwen PC, 2009. Overview of the Flaviviridae with an emphasis on the Japanese encephalitis group viruses. Labmedicine 40: 493499.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Webster LT, Fite GL, 1933. A virus encountered in the study of material from cases of encephalitis in the St. Louis and Kansas City epidemics of 1933. Science 78: 463465.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Simmonds P et al. 2017. Consensus statement: virus taxonomy in the age of metagenomics. Nat Rev Microbiol 15: 161168.

  • 32.

    Arrigo NC, Weaver SC, Calisher C, 2016. The taxonomy of arboviruses. Vasilakis N, Gubler DJ, eds. Arboviruses: Molecular Biology, Evolution and Control. Poole, United Kingdom: Caister Academic Press, 9–30.

  • 33.

    Geoghegan JL, Holmes EC, 2017. Predicting virus emergence amid evolutionary noise. Open Biol 7: 170189.

  • 34.

    Chowdhary R, Street C, Travassos da Rosa A, Nunes MR, Tee KK, Hutchison SK, Vasconcelos PF, Tesh RB, Lipkin WI, Briese T, 2012. Genetic characterization of the Wyeomyia group of orthobunyaviruses and their phylogenetic relationships. J Gen Virol 93: 10231034.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Francy DB, Karabatsos N, Wesson DM, Moore CG Jr., Lazuick JS, Niebylski ML, Tsai TF, Craig GB Jr., 1990. A new arbovirus from Aedes albopictus, an Asian mosquito established in the United States. Science 250: 17381740.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Calisher CH, Sabattini MS, Monath TP, Wolff KL, 1988. Cross-neutralization tests among Cache Valley virus isolates revealing the existence of multiple subtypes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 39: 202205.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Calisher CH, Karabatsos N, 1988. Arbovirus serogroup: definition and geographic distribution. Monath TP, ed. The Arbovirus: Epidemiology and Ecology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 19–57.

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bunyavirus Taxonomy: Limitations and Misconceptions Associated with the Current ICTV Criteria Used for Species Demarcation

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa;
  • | 2 Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado;
  • | 3 Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado;
  • | 4 Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, Munich, Germany;
  • | 5 National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Canada;
  • | 6 Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland;
  • | 7 Arbovirus Laboratory, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and School of Public Health, State University of New York, Albany, New York;
  • | 8 Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California;
  • | 9 Crozet BioPharma LLC, Devens, Massachusetts;
  • | 10 Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas;
  • | 11 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas;
  • | 12 Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas;
  • | 13 Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas;
  • | 14 VectorID LLC, Frederick, Maryland;
  • | 15 Center for Tropical Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas

The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) has implemented numerous changes to the taxonomic classification of bunyaviruses over the years. Whereas most changes have been justified and necessary because of the need to accommodate newly discovered and unclassified viruses, other changes are a cause of concern, especially the decision to demote scores of formerly recognized species to essentially strains of newly designated species. This practice was first described in the seventh taxonomy report of the ICTV and has continued in all subsequent reports. In some instances, viruses that share less than 75% nucleotide sequence identity across their genomes, produce vastly different clinical presentations, possess distinct vector and host associations, have different biosafety recommendations, and occur in nonoverlapping geographic regions are classified as strains of the same species. Complicating the matter is the fact that virus strains have been completely eliminated from ICTV reports; thus, critically important information on virus identities and their associated biological and epidemiological features cannot be readily related to the ICTV classification. Here, we summarize the current status of bunyavirus taxonomy and discuss the adverse consequences associated with the reclassification and resulting omission of numerous viruses of public health importance from ICTV reports. As members of the American Committee on Arthropod-borne Viruses, we encourage the ICTV Bunyavirus Study Group to reconsider their stance on bunyavirus taxonomy, to revise the criteria currently used for species demarcation, and to list additional strains of public and veterinary importance.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Bradley J. Blitvich, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, 2116 Veterinary Medicine Bldg., Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011. E-mail: blitvich@iastate.edu

Authors’ addresses: Bradley J. Blitvich, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, E-mail: blitvich@iastate.edu. Barry J. Beaty and Carol D. Blair, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, E-mails: barry.beaty@colostate.edu and carol.blair@colostate.edu. Aaron C. Brault and Ann M. Powers, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO, E-mails: acbrault1@mac.com and akp7@cdc.gov. Gerhard Dobler, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, Munich, Germany, E-mail: gerharddobler@bundeswehr.org. Michael A. Drebot, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Canada, E-mail: mike.drebot@phac-aspc.gc.ca. Andrew D. Haddow, Department of Entomology, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD, E-mail: andrew.d.haddow.ctr@mail.mil. Laura D. Kramer, Zoonotic Diseases, New York State Department of Health, Slingerlands, Albany, NY, and Wadsworth Center, Albany, NY, E-mail: laura.kramer@health.ny.gov. Angelle Desiree LaBeaud, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, E-mail: dlabeaud@stanford.edu. Thomas P. Monath, Hookipa Biotech AG, Townsend, WA, E-mail: tmonath@linkp.com. Eric C. Mossel, Arboviral Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO, E-mail: ilv8@cdc.gov. Kenneth Plante, Robert B. Tesh, and Scott C. Weaver, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, E-mails: ksplante@utmb.edu, rtesh@utmb.edu, and sweaver@utmb.edu. Michael J. Turell, VectorID LLC, Frederick, MD, E-mail: mturell@erols.com. Nikos Vasilakis, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, and Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Galveston, TX, E-mail: nivasila@utmb.edu.

Save