• 1.

    World Health Organization, 2016. World Malaria Report 2016. Geneva, Swizterland: WHO.

  • 2.

    Yoep N, Hasim H, Yusoff UN, Yusoff M, Mahpot NR, 2015. Spatio-temporal distribution of malaria in Perak, Malaysia. Adv Infect Dis 5: 154161.

  • 3.

    Ministry of Health Malaysia, 2013. Management Guidelines of Malaria in Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Vector Borne Disease Sector, Disease Control Division.

  • 4.

    Snounou G, Singh B, 2002. Nested PCR analysis of Plasmodium parasites. Methods Mol Med 72: 189203.

  • 5.

    Imwong M, Tanomsing N, Pukrittayakamee S, Day NP, White NJ, Snounou G, 2009. Spurious amplification of a Plasmodium vivax small-subunit RNA gene by use of primers currently used to detect P. knowlesi. J Clin Microbiol 47: 41734175.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Fuehrer HP, Stadler MT, Buczolich K, Bloeschl I, Noedl H, 2012. Two techniques for simultaneous identification of Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri by use of the small-subunit rRNA gene. J Clin Microbiol 50: 41004102.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Alves RT, Povoa MM, Goldman IF, Cavasini CE, Rossit AR, Machado RL, 2007. A new polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism protocol for Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein genotype (VK210, VK247, and P. vivax-like) determination. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 59: 415419.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Abdullah NH, 2016. Kejadian Wabak malaria di Pos Kemar, Hulu Perak. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Director-General of Health Malaysia, Ministry of Health Malaysia.

  • 9.

    Romi R, Boccolini D, Menegon M, Rezza G, 2012. Probable autochthonous introduced malaria cases in Italy in 2009–2011 and the risk of local vector-borne transmission. Euro Surveill 17: 20325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    The Star Online, 2017. Mah: Outsiders May Have Caused Malaria Outbreak. Available at: https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2017/01/04/mah-outsiders-may-have-caused-malaria-outbreak/. Accessed July 24, 2017.

  • 11.

    Khoo VJ, 2016. New Malaria Outbreak in Perak Caused by Different Strain. Available at: https://today.mims.com/topic/new-malaria-outbreak-in-perak-caused-by-different-strain. Accessed July 24, 2017.

  • 12.

    Wen S et al. 2016. Targeting populations at higher risk for malaria: a survey of national malaria elimination programmes in the Asia Pacific. Malar J 15: 271.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Cohen R, Cardona JS, Navarro ES, Padilla N, Reyes L, Villar RJP, Masuoka P, Bernart C, Peruski LF, Bryan JP, 2017. Outbreak investigation of Plasmodium vivax malaria in a region of Guatemala targeted for malaria elimination. Am J Trop Med Hyg 96: 819825.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Barber BE, Rajahram GS, Grigg MJ, William T, Anstey NM, 2017. World malaria report: time to acknowledge Plasmodium knowlesi malaria. Malar J 16: 135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Imwong M et al. 2015. The epidemiology of subclinical malaria infections in south-east Asia: findings from cross-sectional surveys in Thailand–Myanmar border areas, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Malar J 14: 381.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Imwong M, Hanchana S, Malleret B, Renia L, Day NP, Dondorp A, Nosten F, Snounou G, White NJ, 2014. High-throughput ultrasensitive molecular techniques for quantifying low-density malaria parasitemias. J Clin Microbiol 52: 33033309.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Past two years Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 7 7 7
Full Text Views 1049 322 3
PDF Downloads 215 75 4
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Importance of Proactive Malaria Case Surveillance and Management in Malaysia

Jonathan Wee Kent LiewDepartment of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia;

Search for other papers by Jonathan Wee Kent Liew in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Rizawati binti MahpotPerak State Health Department, Perak, Malaysia;

Search for other papers by Rizawati binti Mahpot in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Shairah DzulDepartment of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia;

Search for other papers by Shairah Dzul in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Hairul Anuar bin Abdul RazakHulu Perak District Health Office, Perak, Malaysia;

Search for other papers by Hairul Anuar bin Abdul Razak in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Noor Asmah binti Ahmad Shah AziziKuala Kangsar District Health Office, Perak, Malaysia;

Search for other papers by Noor Asmah binti Ahmad Shah Azizi in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Marina binti KamarudinHulu Perak District Health Office, Perak, Malaysia;

Search for other papers by Marina binti Kamarudin in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Bruce RussellDepartment of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia;
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand;

Search for other papers by Bruce Russell in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Khai Lone LimDepartment of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia;

Search for other papers by Khai Lone Lim in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Jeremy Ryan de SilvaDepartment of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia;

Search for other papers by Jeremy Ryan de Silva in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Bing Sheng LimFaculty of Applied Sciences, Tunku Abdul Rahman University College, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia;

Search for other papers by Bing Sheng Lim in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Jenarun JelipDisease Control Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia

Search for other papers by Jenarun Jelip in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Rose Nani binti MudinDisease Control Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia

Search for other papers by Rose Nani binti Mudin in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Yee Ling LauDepartment of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia;

Search for other papers by Yee Ling Lau in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
View More View Less
Restricted access

Although Plasmodium vivax infections in Malaysia are usually imported, a significant autochthonous outbreak of vivax malaria was detected in a remote indigenous (Orang Asli) settlement located in northern peninsular Malaysia. Between November 2016 and April 2017, 164 cases of P. vivax infection were detected. Although 83.5% of the vivax cases were identified through passive case detection and contact screening during the first 7 weeks, subsequent mass blood screening (combination of rapid diagnostic tests, blood films, and polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) of the entire settlement (N = 3,757) revealed another 27 P. vivax infections, 19 of which were asymptomatic. The mapped data from this active case detection program was used to direct control efforts resulting in the successful control of the outbreak in this region. This report highlights the importance of proactive case surveillance and timely management of malaria control in Malaysia as it nears malaria elimination.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Yee Ling Lau, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia. E-mail: lauyeeling@um.edu.my

Financial support: Shairah Dzul was supported by the University of Malaya Research Fund Assistance (Grant no. BK005-2017). Jeremy Ryan de Silva was supported by the Fogarty International Center and the Office of AIDS Research at the National Institutes of Health under the Global Health Equity Scholars Consortium at Yale University (D43TW010540).

Authors’ addresses: Jonathan Wee Kent Liew, Shairah Dzul, Khai Lone Lim, Jeremy Ryan de Silva, and Yee Ling Lau, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, E-mails: jon_wkent@hotmail.com, shairah92@yahoo.com, khailone91@gmail.com, and jeremy8811@gmail.com. Rizawati binti Mahpot, Perak State Health Department, Perak, Malaysia, E-mail: drriza@moh.gov.my. Hairul Anuar bin Abdul Razak and Marina binti Kamarudin, Hulu Perak District Health Office, Perak, Malaysia, E-mails: anuarhairul89@yahoo.com and drkmarina@moh.gov.my. Noor Asmah binti Ahmad Shah Azizi, Kuala Kangsar District Health Office, Perak, Malaysia, E-mail: drnoorasmah@moh.gov.my. Bruce Russell, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, E-mail: b.russell@otago.ac.nz. Bing Sheng Lim, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Tunku Abdul Rahman University College, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, E-mail: bingsheng0506@gmail.com. Jenarun Jelip and Rose Nani binti Mudin, Disease Control Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia, E-mails: drjenarun@gmail.com and drrosenani@gmail.com.

Save