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Given limited data on norovirus vaccine acceptance, we performed an exploratory survey in a rural Guatemalan community on knowledge, interest, and willingness to pay (WTP) for a norovirus vaccine. Cluster-randomized households with children aged 6 weeks to 17 years were enrolled into one of two norovirus surveillance studies: 1) a prospective cohort (N = 207 households) and 2) two separate, community-based, cross-sectional surveys (N = 420 households). After completion of the surveillance study, vaccine surveys were completed by 564 (90%) of 627 households. Most households correctly answered questions regarding norovirus symptoms and transmission; 97% indicated interest in a hypothetical norovirus vaccine. Households with higher education had greater WTP for a vaccine (prevalence ratios = 2.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.2–3.1) and households with lower WTP were more likely to use pharmacies, the Ministry of Health, and radios for health care and information. These results suggest that a future norovirus vaccination program could be acceptable and feasible even in rural areas.
Financial support: This study was supported by an Investigator-Initiated Sponsored Research Grant from Takeda Pharmaceuticals (IISR-2014-100647). Olson is supported by NIH/NCATS Colorado CTSI Grant Number UL1 TR001082 and the Children’s Hospital of Colorado Research Scholar Award. Steven Krager was supported by Grant Number D33HP25768 from the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). FUNSALUD is supported by the Jose Fernando Bolaños Foundation and the Strategic Initiative for Research of the University of Colorado School of Medicine. The contents are the authors’ sole responsibility and do not necessarily represent official NIH view.
Conflicts of interest: Asturias has served on an Advisory Board for Takeda Vaccines Inc. and is partially supported by research grants from GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals and Takeda Vaccines Inc. Lamb is partially supported by grants from GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals and Pantheryx Inc. Olson was partially supported by a grant from Takeda Vaccines Inc. during the study.
Authors’ addresses: Daniel Olson and Edwin J. Asturias, Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, Center for Global Health, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO, Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital of Colorado, Aurora CO, and Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO, E-mails: email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org. Steven Krager, Preventive Medicine Residency Program, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO, E-mail: email@example.com. Molly Lamb, Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO, and Center for Global Health, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Anne-Marie Rick, Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, Center for Global Health, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO, and Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital of Colorado, Aurora, CO, E-mail: email@example.com.