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The Impact of Periodic Distribution Campaigns of Long-Lasting Insecticidal-Treated Bed Nets on Malaria Vector Dynamics and Human Exposure in Dielmo, Senegal

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  • 1 Aix Marseille University, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IDR) (Dakar, Marseille, Papeete), AP-HM, Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire-Méditerranée Infection, UMR Vecteurs—Infections Tropicales et Méditerranéennes (VITROME), Marseille, France;
  • | 2 Département de Biologie Animale, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Dakar Fann, Sénégal;
  • | 3 Unité d’Entomologie Médicale (UME), Institut Pasteur Dakar, Dakar, Sénégal;
  • | 4 Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Cote d’Ivoire (CSRS), Yopougon, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire;
  • | 5 UMR Évolution, Génomes, Comportement, Écologie (EGCE) Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), IRD-University Paris-Sud, IDEEV, University Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
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The implementation of long-lasting insecticidal-treated bed nets (LLINs) has contributed to halving the mortality rate due to malaria since 2000 in sub-Saharan Africa. These tools are highly effective against indoor-feeding malaria vectors. Thus, to achieve the World Health Assembly’s new target to reduce the burden of malaria over the next 15 years by 90%, it is necessary to understand how the spatiotemporal dynamics of malaria vectors and human exposure to bites is modified in the context of scaling up global efforts to control malaria transmission. This study was conducted in Dielmo, a Senegalese village, after the introduction of LLINs and two rounds of LLINs renewals. Data analysis showed that implementation of LLINs correlated with a significant decrease in the biting densities of the main malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus, reducing malaria transmission. Other environment factors likely contributed to the decrease in An. funestus, but this trend was enhanced with the introduction of LLINs. The bulk of bites occurred during sleeping hours, but the residual vector populations of An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus had an increased propensity to bite outdoors, so a risk of infectious bites remained for LLINs users. These results highlight the need to increase the level and correct use of LLINs and to combine this intervention with complementary control measures against residual exposure, such as spatial repellents and larval source management, to achieve the goal of eliminating malaria transmission.

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Author Notes

Address correspondence to Seynabou Sougoufara, VITROME, Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée Infection, 19–21 Boulevard Jean Moulin 13385 Marseille Cedex 05, France. E-mail: seynabou.sougoufara@ird.fr

Financial support: This publication was made possible through support provided by the IDR-DPF (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement-Direction des Programmes de Recherche et de la Formation au Sud).

Authors’ addresses: Seynabou Sougoufara, Aix Marseille University, IRD (Dakar, Marseille, Papeete), AP-HM, IHU-Méditerranée Infection, UMR Vecteurs—Infections Tropicales et Méditerranéennes (VITROME), Marseille, France, and Département de Biologie Animale, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Dakar Fann, Sénégal, E-mail: seynabou.sougoufara@gmail.com. Omar Thiaw, Nafissatou Diagne, Charles Bouganali, Souleymane Doucoure, and Cheikh Sokhna, Aix Marseille University, IRD (Dakar, Marseille, Papeete), AP-HM, IHU-Méditerranée Infection, UMR Vecteurs—Infections Tropicales et Méditerranéennes (VITROME), Marseille, France, E-mails: thiawomar185@yahoo.com, nafissatou.diagne@ird.fr, charles.bouganali@ird.fr, souleymane.doucoure@ird.fr, and cheikh.sokhna@ird.fr. Aurélie Cailleau, Unité d’Entomologie Médicale (UME), Institut Pasteur Dakar, Dakar, Sénégal, and Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Cote d’Ivoire (CSRS), Yopougon, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, E-mail: a.cailleau@csrs.ci. Myriam Harry, UMR Évolution, Génomes, Comportement, Écologie (EGCE) CNRS, IRD-University Paris-Sud, IDEEV, University Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France, E-mail: myriam.harry@u-psud.fr. Pape M. Sembène, Département de Biologie Animale, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Dakar Fann, Sénégal, E-mail: mbacke.sembene@ird.fr.

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