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Effect of Health Care on Quality of Life among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Adults With and Without Visceral Leishmaniasis in northwest Ethiopia: A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study

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  • 1 Department of Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia;
  • 2 Department of Public Health, St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia;
  • 3 School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia;
  • 4 Department of Reproductive Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia

There has been a scarcity of data on the effect of health care on the quality of life (QoL) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)– and visceral leishmaniasis (VL)– coinfected patients over time. We sought to assess the change that health care brings about in the QoL of HIV patients with and without VL and its predictors in 6 months. A total of 465 HIV patients without VL and 125 HIV–VL-coinfected patients were enrolled in the longitudinal follow-up study from October 2015 to September 2016. Data on QoL at baseline and in 6 months were collected by trained nurses through face-to-face interviews using a short Amharic version of World Health Organization QoL instrument for HIV clients. Multiple linear regressions were used to assess the predictors of health-related QoL. There was an improvement in all of the domains of QoL at the sixth month follow-up compared with the baseline for both groups of patients (P < 0.001). Lack of social support and income were associated with the low improvement in QoL in most of the domains in both groups. Compared with patients having severe acute malnutrition, patients having moderate acute malnutrition and normal nutritional status were better in most of the QoL domains in both groups of patients. Both antiretroviral and anti-VL treatments showed improvement in all dimensions of QoL. Income, social support, and nutritional status were the predictors for most of the QoL domains.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Mekuriaw Alemayehu, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, 196, Gondar, Ethiopia. E-mail: mekuriaw14@gmail.com

Financial support: The study was supported by University of Gondar.

Ethical approval and consent to participate: Ethical clearance letter No. 2015/996 was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the University of Gondar. Then, an official letter was obtained from the administrative bodies of Gondar University, Humera, and Metema hospitals and Abdrafi Health Center. The purpose of the study was well explained to the study participants and informed consents were secured. Confidentiality was maintained at all levels of the study by avoiding the use of names and other identifiers. Participants’ involvement in the study was voluntary; participants who were unwilling to participate and those who wished to quit were allowed to do so without any restrictions.

Availability of data and materials: The datasets supporting the conclusions of this article are available on request to the corresponding author. Because of data protection restrictions and confidentiality, we do not make participant data publicly available.

Authors’ addresses: Mekuriaw Alemayehu, Department of Environmental Health and Safety, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia, E-mail: mekuriaw14@gmail.com. Mamo Wubshet, Department of Public Health, St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, E-mail: mamowubshet@gmail.com. Nebiyu Mesfin, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia, E-mail: hakimulig@gmail.com. Abebaw Gebayehu, Department of Reproductive Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia, E-mail: gabebaw2worku@gmail.com.

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