Kyu HH et al. Global Burden of Disease Pediatrics Collaboration, 2016. Global and national burden of diseases and injuries among children and adolescents between 1990 and 2013: findings from the global burden of disease 2013 study. JAMA Pediatr 170: 267–287.
UNHCR, 2016. Global Trends Forced Displacement in 2015.Geneva, Switzerland: UNHCR Global Trends.
Shultz A, Omollo JO, Burke H, Qassim M, Ochieng JB, Weinberg M, Feikin DR, Breiman RF, 2009. Cholera outbreak in kenyan refugee camp: risk factors for illness and importance of sanitation. Am J Trop Med Hyg 80: 640–645.
Benny E et al. 2014. A large outbreak of shigellosis commencing in an internally displaced population, Papua New Guinea, 2013. Western Pac Surveill Response J 5: 18–21.
Lederer I, Taus K, Allerberger F, Fenkart S, Spina A, Springer B, Schmid D, 2015. Shigellosis in refugees, Austria, July to November 2015. Euro Surveill 20: pii30081.
Taniuchi M, Sobuz SU, Begum S, Platts-Mills JA, Liu J, Yang Z, Wang XQ, Petri WA Jr, Haque R, Houpt ER, 2013. Etiology of diarrhea in Bangladeshi infants in the first year of life analyzed using molecular methods. J Infect Dis 208: 1794–1802.
DuPont HL, Levine MM, Hornick RB, Formal SB, 1989. Inoculum size in Shigellosis and implications for expected mode of transmission. J Infect Dis 159: 1126–1128.
Ryan ET, 2013. The intestinal pathobiome: its reality and consequences among infants and young children in resource-limited settings. J Infect Dis 208: 1732–1733.
Lindsay B et al. 2013. Quantitative PCR for detection of Shigella improves ascertainment of Shigella burden in children with moderate-to-severe diarrhea in low-income countries. J Clin Microbiol 51: 1740–1746.
Iyer AS et al. 2016. Immune responses to an oral cholera vaccine in internally displaced persons in South Sudan. Sci Rep 6: 35742.
Liu J et al. 2016. Use of quantitative molecular diagnostic methods to identify causes of diarrhoea in children: a reanalysis of the GEMS case-control study. Lancet 388: 1291–1301.
Mosley W, Adams B, Lyman E, 1962. Epidemiologic and sociologic features of a large urban outbreak of shigellosis. JAMA 182: 1307–1311.
Arvelo W et al. 2009. Transmission risk factors and treatment of pediatric shigellosis during a large daycare center-associated outbreak of multidrug resistant Shigella sonnei: implications for the management of shigellosis outbreaks among children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 28: 976–980.
Riggs MM, Sethi AK, Zabarsky TF, Eckstein EC, Jump RLP, Donskey CJ, 2007. Asymptomatic carriers are a potential source for transmission of epidemic and nonepidemic clostridium difficile strains among long-term care facility residents. Clin Infect Dis 45: 992–998.
Ko CF, Wang LY, Lin NT, Chiou CS, Yeh HC, Renn JH, Lee YS, 2013. Transmission and strain variation of Shigella flexneri 4a after mass prophylaxis in a long-stay psychiatric centre. Epidemiol Infect 141: 242–250.
Thornley CN, Hewitt J, Perumal L, Van Gessel SM, Wong J, David SA, Rapana JP, Li S, Marshall JC, Greening GE, 2013. Multiple outbreaks of a novel norovirus GII.4 linked to an infected post-symptomatic food handler. Epidemiol Infect 141: 1585–1597.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||427||151||5|
Displaced persons living in camps are at an increased risk of diarrheal diseases. Subclinical carriage of pathogens may contribute to the spread of disease, especially for microbes that require a low infectious dose. Multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect a panel of 20 bacterial, viral, and protozoal targets, and we report a high prevalence of enteropathogen carriage, including Shigella spp. or enteroinvasive Escherichia coli in 14%, among a sample of 88 asymptomatic individuals in an internally displaced persons camp in South Sudan. Further studies are needed to determine the contribution of such carriage to the spread of disease.
Authors’ addresses: Jesse Bliss, Peter Hale, and Daniel T. Leung, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Malika Bouhenia, World Health Organization, Juba, South Sudan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Brianne A. Couturier and Marc Roger Couturier, ARUP Laboratories, Salt Lake City, UT, E-mails: email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org. Anita S. Iyer, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, E-mail: email@example.com. John Rumunu, Department of Preventative Health, Government of the Republic of South Sudan Ministry of Health, Juba, South Sudan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Stephen Martin, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, E-mail: email@example.com. Joseph F. Wamala, World Health Organization, Emergency, Juba, South Sudan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Abdinasir Abubakar, World Health Organization, Juba, South Sudan, E-mail: email@example.com. David A. Sack, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Francisco J. Luquero, Epicentre, Paris, France, E-mail: email@example.com. Andrew S. Azman, Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, and Medecins Sans Frontieres, Geneva, Switzerland, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.