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In countries where poliomyelitis has been eradicated, Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is the leading cause of acute flaccid paralysis. The range of infections that precede GBS in Brazil is unknown. Campylobacter jejuni infection is the most frequent trigger of GBS worldwide. Given the lack of systematic surveillance of diarrheal diseases, particularly in adults, the incidence of enteritis caused by C. jejuni in developing countries is unknown. From 2014 to 2016, pretreatment serum samples from 63 GBS patients were tested by immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for C. jejuni. Campylobacter jejuni IgM antibodies were detected in 17% (11/63) of the samples. There was no association between serological positivity (IgM) for C. jejuni and the occurrence of diarrhea among the investigated cases (P = 0.36). Hygiene measures, basic sanitation, and precautions during handling and preparation of food of animal origin may help prevent acute flaccid paralysis.
Ethics committee approval: This study was approved by the Piauí State University Ethics Committee (CAAE 68445817.9.0000.5613).
Financial support: The Instituto Evandro Chagas provided a grant for this study, as well as Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Piauí (FAPEPI).
Authors’ addresses: Cintya O. Souza and Leni C. R. Monteiro, Department of Bacteriology and Mycology, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ananindeua, Pará, Brazil, E-mails: email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org. Marcelo A. C. S. Vieira, Department of Neurology, Natan Portella Institute of Tropical Medicine, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, E-mail: email@example.com. Ana C. R. Cruz and Raimunda S. S. Azevedo, Department of Arbovirology and Haemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ananindeua, Pará, Brazil, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com. Francisca M. A. Batista, Department of Health Surveillance, Piauí State Health Secretariat, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Laís C. Sá, Department of Health Surveillance, Piauí State University Hospital, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, E-mail: email@example.com. Kelsen D. Eulálio and Walfrido S. Almeida-Neto, Department of Infectious Diseases, Natan Portella Institute of Tropical Medicine, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com. Jéssica M. M. Neves, Medicine School, Novafapi University, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Dorcas L. Costa, Department of Mother and Child Health, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, E-mail: email@example.com.
These two authors contributed equally to this article.