• 1.

    Hotez PJ, Fenwick A, Savioli L, Molyneux DH, 2009. Rescuing the bottom billion through control of neglected tropical diseases. Lancet 373: 15701575.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Dunn JC, Turner HC, Tun A, Anderson RM, 2016. Epidemiological surveys of, and research on, soil-transmitted helminths in southeast Asia: a systematic review. Parasit Vectors 27: 931.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Bethony J, Brooker S, Albonico M, Geiger SM, Loukas A, Diemert D, Hotez PJ, 2006. Soil-transmitted helminth infections: ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm. Lancet 367: 15211532.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Liu GH, Gasser RB, Nejsum P, Wang Y, Chen Q, Song HQ, Zhu XQ, 2013. Mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal DNA evidence supports the existence of a new Trichuris species in the endangered françois’ leaf-monkey. PLoS One 8: e66249.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Márquez-Navarro A, García-Bracamontes G, Alvarez-Fernández BE, Ávila-Caballero LP, Santos-Aranda I, Díaz-Chiguer DL, Sánchez-Manzano RM, Rodríguez-Bataz E, Nogueda-Torres B, 2012. Trichuris vulpis (Froelich, 1789) infection in a child: a case report. Korean J Parasitol 50: 6971.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Kradin RL, Badizadegan K, Auluck P, Korzenik J, Lauwers GY, 2006. Iatrogenic Trichuris suis in a patient with Crohn disease. Arch Pathol Lab Med 130: 718720.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Liu GH, Zhou W, Nisbet AJ, Xu MJ, Zhou DH, Zhao GH, Wang SK, Song HQ, Lin RQ, Zhu XQ, 2014. Characterization of Trichuris trichiura from humans and T. suis from pigs in China using internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA. J Helminthol 88: 6468.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Stephenson LS, Holland CV, Cooper ES, 2000. The public health significance of Trichuris trichiura. Parasitology 121: S73S95.

  • 9.

    Lenk EJ, Redekop WK, Luyendijk M, Rijnsburger AJ, Severens JL, 2016. Productivity loss related to neglected tropical diseases eligible for preventive chemotherapy: a systematic literature review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10: e0004397.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    de Silva NR, Brooker S, Hotez PJ, Montresor A, Engels D, Savioli L, 2003. Soil-transmitted helminth infections: updating the global picture. Trends Parasitol 19: 547551.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Azira NMS, Zeehaida M, 2012. Severe chronic iron deficiency anaemia secondary to Trichuris dysentery syndrome - a case report. Trop Biomed 29: 626631.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Laymanivong S, Hangvanthong B, Keokhamphavanh B, Phommasansak M, Phinmaland B, Sanpool O, Maleewong W, Intapan PM, 2014. Current status of human hookworm infections, ascariasis, trichuriasis, schistosomiasis mekongi and other trematodiases in Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Am J Trop Med Hyg 90: 667669.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Montresor A, Zin TT, Padmasiri E, Allen H, Savioli L, 2004. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Myanmar and approximate costs for countrywide control. Trop Med Int Health 9: 10121015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Yong TS et al. 2014. Prevalence of intestinal helminths among inhabitants of Cambodia (2006–2011). Korean J Parasitol 52: 661666.

  • 15.

    Liabsuetrakul T et al. 2009. Epidemiology and the effect of treatment of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in pregnant women in southern Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 40: 211222.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Ok KS, Kim YS, Song JH, Lee JH, Ryu SH, Lee JH, Moon JS, Whang DH, Lee HK, 2009. Trichuris trichiura infection diagnosed by colonoscopy: case reports and review of literature. Korean J Parasitol 47: 275280.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Ghai RR, Simons ND, Chapman CA, Omeja PA, Davies TJ, Ting N, Goldberg TL, 2014. Hidden population structure and cross-species transmission of whipworms (Trichuris sp.) in humans and non-human primates in Uganda. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e3256.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Cutillas C, de Rojas M, Ariza C, Ubeda JM, Guevara D, 2007. Molecular identification of Trichuris vulpis and Trichuris suis isolated from different hosts. Parasitol Res 100: 383389.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Dolezalova J et al. 2015. How many species of whipworms do we share? Whipworms from man and other primates form two phylogenetic lineages. Folia Parasitol (Praha) 3: 62.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Meekums H, Hawash MB, Sparks AM, Oviedo Y, Sandoval C, Chico ME, Stothard JR, Cooper PJ, Nejsum P, Betson M, 2015. A genetic analysis of Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis from Ecuador. Parasit Vectors 19: 168.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Hall TA, 1999. BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser 41: 9598.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S, 2013. MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol 30: 27252729.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Cutillas C, Callejón R, de Rojas M, Tewes B, Ubeda JM, Ariza C, Guevara DC, 2009. Trichuris suis and Trichuris trichiura are different nematode species. Acta Trop 111: 299307.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Guardone L, Deplazes P, Macchioni F, Magi M, Mathis A, 2013. Ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA analysis of Trichuridae nematodes of carnivores and small mammals. Vet Parasitol 197: 364369.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Callejón R, Nadler S, De Rojas M, Zurita A, Petrášová J, Cutillas C, 2013. Molecular characterization and phylogeny of whipworm nematodes inferred from DNA sequences of cox1 mtDNA and 18S rDNA. Parasitol Res 112: 39333949.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    George S et al. 2016. The molecular speciation of soil-transmitted helminth eggs collected from school children across six endemic countries. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 110: 657663.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Areekul P, Putaporntip C, Pattanawong U, Sitthicharoenchai P, Jongwutiwes S, 2010. Trichuris vulpis and T. trichiura infections among schoolchildren of a rural community in northwestern Thailand: the possible role of dogs in disease transmission. Asian Biomed 4: 4960.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Beer RJ, 1976. The relationship between Trichuris trichiura (Linnaeus 1758) of man and Trichuris suis (Schrank 1788) of the pig. Res Vet Sci 20: 4754.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Molecular Identification of Trichuris suis and Trichuris trichiura Eggs in Human Populations from Thailand, Lao PDR, and Myanmar

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, and Research and Diagnostic Center for Infectious Diseases, Mekong Health Science Research Institute, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand;
  • | 2 Faculty of Medicine, Maha Sarakram University, Maha Sarakram, Thailand;
  • | 3 School of Public Health, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand;
  • | 4 School of Allied Health Sciences, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand;
  • | 5 Office of Disease Prevention & Control 1st, Ministry of Public Health, Chiang Mai, Thailand;
  • | 6 Centre of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology, Ministry of Health, Vientiane, Lao PDR;
  • | 7 Department of Microbiology, University of Medicine 2, Ministry of Health and Sport, Yangon, Myanmar

Trichuris trichiura is a soil-transmitted helminth infecting human populations globally. Human cases caused by Trichuris suis and Trichuris vulpis have also been reported. Molecular identifications of Trichuris species infecting human populations in Lao PDR and Myanmar are lacking. Here, we explored molecular data obtained from Trichuris eggs recovered from human fecal samples from these countries and compared these with new and existing data from Thailand. Nuclear ribosomal DNA (18S and ITS2) sequences were amplified from Trichuris eggs and sequenced. Forty-one samples showed 99–100% similarity in their 18S sequences to published sequences of T. trichiura and one sample showed 99% similarity to a sequence of T. suis. Similarly, 41 samples showed 92–100% similarity in their ITS2 sequences to published sequences of T. trichiura and one sample showed 94–97% similarity to sequences of T. suis. This study is the first molecular confirmation of human infection with T. suis in northeast Thailand and the first molecular confirmation of the species of Trichuris infecting humans in Lao PDR and Myanmar.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Wanchai Maleewong, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, 123 Mitraparp Road, Amphur Muang, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand. E-mail: wanch_ma@kku.ac.th

Financial support: This study was supported by a TRF Senior Research Scholar Grant, Thailand Research Fund (T. T., P. M. I., and W. M., grant number RTA5880001); the Higher Education Research Promotion and National Research University Project of Thailand, Office of the Higher Education Commission, Thailand, through the Health Cluster (SHeP-GMS) (W. M.); the Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University (W. M. and P. M. I., grant numbers TR57201 and AS58302); and Scholarship under Doctoral Training Program from Graduate School Research Affairs and Khon Kaen University (O. S., grant number 58101). I. P. was partially supported by the Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University (IN 60208).

Authors’ addresses: Issarapong Phosuk, Oranuch Sanpool, Lakkhana Sadaow, Rutchanee Rodpai, Pewpan M. Intapan, and Wanchai Maleewong, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand, E-mails: issarapong2oum@gmail.com, sanpoolor@yahoo.com, sadaow1986@gmail.com, rutchanee5020@gmail.com, pewpan@kku.ac.th, and wanch_ma@kku.ac.th. Tongjit Thanchomnang, Faculty of Medicine, Maha Sarakram University, Maha Sarakram, Thailand, E-mail: thanchomnang@yahoo.com. Win Pa Pa Aung, Department of Microbiology, University of Medicine 2, Ministry of Health and Sport, Yangon, Myanmar, E-mail: eipamicro@gmail.com. Sakhone Laymanivong, Laboratory Unit, Centre of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology, Ministry of Health, Vientiane, Lao PDR, E-mail: sakhone07@gmail.com. Witthaya Anamnart, School of Public Health, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand, E-mail: awitthay@wu.ac.th. Penchom Janwan, School of Allied Health Sciences, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand, E-mail: penchom.ja@wu.ac.th. Adulsak Wijit, Office of Disease Prevention & Control 1st, Ministry of Public Health, Chiang Mai, Thailand, E-mail: adulsak_w@hotmail.com.

Save