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Status of Insecticide Resistance in Papua New Guinea: An Update from Nation-Wide Monitoring of Anopheles Mosquitoes

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  • 1 Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Madang, Madang Province, Papua New Guinea;
  • | 2 Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland;
  • | 3 University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland;
  • | 4 Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, United Kingdom;
  • | 5 Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 1G Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria, Australia;
  • | 6 University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

Insecticide resistance (IR) monitoring is an important component of vector-borne disease control. The last assessment of IR in Papua New Guinea (PNG) was conducted in 2010. Since then, vector populations have been exposed to higher levels of pyrethroids with the continued nation-wide distribution of insecticide-treated nets. Here, we provide an update on phenotypic IR in four highly malaria-endemic areas of PNG. IR against deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane was assessed using World Health Organization bioassays. A total of 108 bioassays for each insecticide were conducted screening 2,290 adult female anopheline mosquitoes. No phenotypic resistance was observed. Bioassay parameters agreed well with those observed in other studies that used the same assays and insecticides. These results indicate that the three tested insecticides are still universally effective in PNG. Continued IR monitoring (every 1–2 years) in PNG is recommended to detect reduced susceptibility early and adjust guidelines to prevent widespread resistance.

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Author Notes

Address correspondence to Stephan Karl, Population Health and Immunity Division, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 1 G Royal Parade, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia. E-mail: karl@wehi.edu.au

Financial support: The present study was conducted with the financial support of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and logistical and administrative support from Population Services International (PSI). The authors acknowledge the support of the MSCU, in particular that of Melinda Susapu.

Authors’ addresses: Gussy Koimbu, Cyrille Czeher, Michelle Katusele, Muker Sakur, Lemen Kilepak, and Anthony Tandrapah, Vector-borne Infectious Diseases Unit, Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Madang, Madang 511, Papua New Guinea, E-mails: gkoimbu@hotmail.com, cyril_czeher@yahoo.fr, katuselemn@gmail.com, muker.sakur@gmail.com, lemen.kilepak@gmail.com, and anthony.tandrapah@pngimr.org.pg. Manuel W. Hetzel, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, 4051 Basel, Switzerland, E-mail: manuel.hetzel@swisstph.ch. Justin Pulford, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place Liverpool, L3 5QA United Kingdom, E-mail: justin.pulford@lstmed.ac.uk. Leanne Robinson, Disease Elimination Program, Burnet Institute, 85 Commercial Road, Melbourne Victoria, 3004, Australia, Department of Population Health & Immunity, 1G Royal Parade, Parkville Victoria 3052, Australia, and Department of Medical Biology, University of Melbourne, Grattan Street, Parkville, Victoria, 3010, Australia, E-mail: leanne.robinson@burnet.edu.au. Stephan Karl, Department of Population Health & Immunity, Walter & Eliza Hall Institute, 1G Royal Parade, Parkville Victoria 3052, Australia, Vector-borne Infectious Diseases Unit, Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Madang, Madang 511, Papua New Guinea, and Department of Medical Biology, University of Melbourne, Grattan Street, Parkville, Victoria, 3010, Australia, E-mail: karl@wehi.edu.au.

These authors contributed equally to this work.

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