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Case Report: First Coinfection Report of Mixed Leishmania infantum/Leishmania major and Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: Report of a Case of Disseminated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Iran

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  • 1 Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;
  • | 2 Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;
  • | 3 Center for Research of Endemic Parasites of Iran (CREPI), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;
  • | 4 Vector-Born Research Center, North Khorasan University of Medical Science, Bojnurd, Iran;
  • | 5 North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran;
  • | 6 Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Mashhad, Iran

Visceral leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease, is the third most common opportunistic disease in immunosuppressed patients, such as those affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Although the reports have been characterized as Leishmania/HIV coinfections, the occurrence of a mixed infection by two Leishmania species in HIV-positive patients is rare. Here, we present an atypical case of disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) in a 26-year-old HIV-positive man. The diagnosis of DCL was established using skin biopsy and histopathology examinations and confirmed by molecular techniques. This is the first case of a Leishmania/HIV coinfection due to a mixed infection of Leishmania infantum/Leishmania major in Iran.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Sadaf Sabzevari or Seyed Ahmad Hashemi, Vector-borne Diseases Research Center, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran, Taleghani Street, Bojnurd, Iran. E-mails: s.sabzevari@nkums.ac.ir or hashemya@yahoo.com

Authors’ addresses: Alireza Badirzadeh, Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, E-mail: badirzadeh@gmail.com. Mehdi Mohebali, Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, E-mail: mohebali@tums.ac.ir. Sadaf Sabzevari, Majid Ghafoori, Kourosh Arzamani, and Seyed Ahmad Hashemi, Vector-borne Diseases Research Center, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran, E-mails: sadafsabsevari@hotmail.com, ghafourim841@yahoo.com, arzamanik@gmail.com, and hashemya@yahoo.com. Mohammad Seyyedin, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Mashhad, Iran, E-mail: seyyedinm@yahoo.com.

These authors contributed equally to this work.

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